Tuesday, September 23, 2014

Indus water: treaty and conflicts

On Sept 19, the treaty signed in Karachi entered 55th year, surviving hostility, conflicts, wars between nuclear-armed rivals

Lt Gen PK Grover
INDIA HAS BEEN TRYING TO UTILISE THE PERMISSIVE PROVISIONS TO THE FULL AND PAKISTAN HAS BEEN ATTEMPTING TO APPLY THE RESTRICTIVE PROVISIONS STRINGENTLY
In a world burdened by burgeoning populations and faced by declining water resources, water is likely to trigger conflict. For India and Pakistan, too, fed as they are by the common Indus river watershed, water is a serious issue.
The Indus river, having its source in Indian Kashmir and flowing through Pakistan, is the primary freshwater source for the latter. Agriculture being the mainstay of the economy in both countries, their dependence on the Indus and its tributaries is implicit and any problems with the flow therein can have serious consequences for both. In recent years, the water levels in the river system have been affected adversely by increasing populations, industrialisation and consequent ecological changes. The problem, posing an existential threat, apparently is more serious for Pakistan.
The Indus Water Treaty addressing the sharing of waters of the Indus between India and Pakistan assumes a crucial role. Concluded after prolonged negotiations and facilitated under the aegis of the World Bank, it is the world’s most generous water-sharing pact, both in terms of the sharing ratio as well as the total quantum of waters reserved for the lower riparian state. On September 19, the treaty signed in 1960 in Karachi enters its 55th year, surviving hostility, conflicts, and wars between two nuclear-armed rivals.
MOST GENEROUS
Some disputes notwithstanding, the treaty is considered one of the world’s most successful trans-boundary water accords, as it addresses specific water allocation issues and provides unique design requirements for run-of-theriver dams, which ensure the steady flow of water and guarantee hydroelectricity. The agreement also provides a mechanism for consultation and arbitration should questions, disagreements, or disputes arise.
The resolving of issues perceived by Pakistan regarding the construction of the Baglihar Dam and Kishanganga hydroelectric project within the framework of the deal bears ample testimony to its inherent strength.
However, for the past decade or so, Pakistan has been demanding a bigger share of water from rivers that flow from India, by objecting to the run-of-the-river hydroelectricity projects under construction on the western rivers, and by accusing India of diverting/storing water entitled to Pakistan.
PAK OBJECTIONS
During the recent inconclusive talks (August 24 to 26) between the Indus Commissions at Lahore, Pakistan has raised the disputed issues under the provisions of the treaty. It has objected to design technicalities such as “deep gated spillway, excessive pondage and height of freeboard” in the construction of the Ratle (850 megawatt), Pikkal Dul (1,000 MW), Miyar (120 MW), and Lower Kalnai (48 MW) INDIA ADHERED
In response, India has maintained that it has all along adhered to the treaty and has never deprived Pakistan of its legitimate share of water, and has no intention of doing so. However, to look at Pakistan’s requirements, there will be another round of talks in New Delhi after about two months, after Pakistan has made two visits to Miyar and Kishanganga to witness first-hand the constraints and justifications put forward by India. It is clear to Pakistan that instead of going into unending and costly international arbitrations, it should find a middle path.
MUST APPRECIATE
Pakistan must appreciate that the provisions of the treaty, while allocating the western rivers to Pakistan, permit a limited use of those by India, as they pass through the Indian territory, for drinking water, existing agriculture use, limited expansion, a storage of no more than 3.6 MAF (million acre feet), and generation of hydroelectricity through run-of-the-river projects. These permissive provisions, as per Annexure C, D and E, are hemmed in with stringent conditions and restrictions to ensure that Pakistan stands protected from the possibilities of stoppage of flows or harmful flooding. India has been trying to utilise the permissive provisions to the full, and Pakistan has been attempting to apply the restrictive provisions stringently.
Pakistan will be well advised to understand the Indian perspective and resolve issues, if any, bilaterally under the provisions of the treaty.
Fortunately, a mechanism exists under the accord to carry out consultations and research on behalf of both countries and to remove misconceptions and anxieties. Article 7 of the Indus Water Treaty mentions ‘Future Cooperation’, which, inter alia, discusses efforts in the future to optimise the potential of the Indus river system jointly. Very little attention has been paid to this aspect, so far.
SIMPLE SOLUTION
Therefore, a simple solution is to form a joint study group of experts who should function as a part of the mechanism available within the purview of the Indus Water Treaty on bilateral basis.
This group should carry out consultations and research on various current issues to optimise the availability/utilisation of water for various economic purposes and to further India-Pakistan relations. The study group may also consider building hydroelectricity projects with large dams on the western rivers with assured discharge to Pakistan to offset natural calamities because of floods.
The provisions of the treaty will continue to remain the cornerstone of the watersharing between India and Pakistan; and both countries will operate in a spirit of constructive cooperation. Thus, a regional approach is required in maintaining the prosperity and dominance of the mighty Indus.
The writer is an expert on the Indus Water Treaty. Views expressed are his personal.http://paper.hindustantimes.com/epaper/viewer.aspx

Pakistan appoints army chief’s close confidant as ISI boss

ISLAMABAD: Pakistan appointed a close confidant of the army chief as head of the InterServices Intelligence Monday, a move that suggested General Raheel Sharif was consolidating his position amid political instability here.

The appointment of Lieutenant General Rizwan Akhtar, part of a major reshuffle in the military, is aimed at cementing the army’s dominance after weeks of anti-government protests in Pakistan. Akhtar will assume his responsibilities on November 8.
Political observers were surprised at his appointment as he has considerable experience in counterinsurgency from a previous posting in the troubled Waziristan and tribal areas but little in intelligence work. His previous job as head of the paramilitary Rangers in Sindh, saw Akhtar lead operations against Islamist groups and criminal gangs in Karachi.
The head of the ISI is one of the most important posts in Pakistan, at the intersection of domestic politics, the war on militancy and Pakistan’s foreign relations.

China-India standoff continues along LAC Chinese troops are still active along the border

NEW DELHI: Chumar sector in eastern Ladakh remained active with Chinese Peoples’ Liberation Army (PLA) troops involved in tactical manoeuvre with the Indian Army to exercise dominance by transgressing the Line of Actual Control.

On Monday, the PLA reduced its strength at the 30 R point on the LAC and uprooted the seven tents it had put up last Saturday to house some 70 personnel with 17 vehicles. The situation report indicated that around 10-15 PLA troopers were standing on Chinese side of LAC with two trucks without any face-off with Indian troops.But the reduction of PLA on 30 R has been compensated with increase of Chinese soldiers on Point 4991 to about 95-100 troops, triple the number who were there over the weekend locked in an eyeball-to-eyeball confrontation with some 500 Indian Army personnel. Point 4991 has a dominant view of Chumar.
It has now come to light that a division strength of PLA had exercised integrated battle some 70km away from Chumar LAC eight months ago.
The PLA exercise was conducted in “war zone concept” of the Chinese army, with real time intelligence and direct contact with the headquarters in Beijing.
According to sources in Leh, the Chinese PLA have already built a motorable track to point 4912 and are now trying to extend it to point 4991, which is close to Beijing’s perception of LAC.
“If PLA were allowed to stay at point 4991, then the Chinese would have a clear view to Indian activities in Chumar and pose to military challenge to Indian Army positions in the area,” said a South Block official The Chinese troops had a brief faceoff with Indian soldiers at point 63 on Monday.http://paper.hindustantimes.com/epaper/viewer.aspx
Doda, September 22

A veterans rally was organised at ALG Complex in Kishtwar, today under the Delta Force. The General Officer Commanding, Delta Force, speaking on the occasion, expressed his solidarity for flood victims of the state and reiterated that the Indian Army is always the first responder and had launched “Operation Megh Rahat” for providing relief to the needy.
The Delta Force has been able to rescue 54,630 civilians from the flood- affected areas, provided medical assistance to 8,581 civilians and meals to 45,718 civilians.
The GoC also appreciated the helping hand provided by the veterans of Chenab Valley in all the rescue and relief operations undertaken by the Rashtriya Rifles units.
In this rally two ‘veer naris’ were felicitated with cheques for Rs one lakh each and additional monetary assistance to 23 ‘veer naris’ and veterans were also provided.
A modified scooter was presented to a battle-casualty ex-soldier. The GoC emphasised on the Army’s resolve to ensure that the veterans were looked after well as they were a part of the extended family even after they had hung their boots.
He highlighted various schemes for veterans and “veer naris’ initiated by the Army, Central and state governments.
Javed Khan, DDC, Kishtwar, also addressed the rally and highlighted the role of veterans rendering in building up social fabric in the Chenab Valley.
The rally was attended by 1,200 veterans and ‘veer naris’ of Kishtwar, Doda and Ramban districts. Apart from resolving pension-related problems and resettlement issues, a medical camp was also organised.
Army officer found dead in AkhnoorJammu, September 22
An Army officer was found dead in his room in the Pallanwala area of Akhnoor subdivision of Jammu today. He was a resident of Delhi. “Major Raman Baghla, who was officiating Commandant, ADS, 410 Field Hospital, was found dead in his room in the Pallanwala area this morning,” said a defence spokesperson. A court of inquiry has been initiated, the spokesperson said. The Akhnoor police, which has initiated inquest proceedings under Section 174 of the CrPC, are also probing whether the officer committed suicide. TNS
New Delhi, September 22

As India’s stand-off with China at Chumar in southeast Ladakh continues, Army Chief General Dalbir Singh Suhag has called off his four-day visit to Bhutan scheduled to start on Monday. He is expected to visit the neighbouring country later.
Meanwhile, the Army numerically dominates almost all positions at Chumar where it is locked in a face-off with Chinese People's Liberation Army since September 10.
New Delhi decided to ramp up its troop presence in the disputed area on September 19, asking the force to stay put till the PLA withdraws into areas held by it in Chepzi (Zhipuqi-Quebusi). China may retaliate by increasing the number of soldiers there, say sources.
In Beijing, Chinese President Xi Jinping, who is also the chairman of the Central Military Commission, attended a meeting of Chiefs of Staff of the PLA today. The Chinese Defence Ministry website quoted Jinping as saying: "Headquarters of all PLA forces should improve their combat readiness and sharpen their ability to win a regional war in the age of information technology."
As both sides blame the other for violating the sanctity of the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and the 2005 protocol that bars any troop build-up or construction in disputed areas, sources say a final resolution to the stand-off depends on "who blinks first".
A final decision to end the face-off will have to come from New Delhi and Beijing as the local military commanders have exhausted all options. The two sides will have to agree to a formula that seems workable for both. The events are being closely watched in Washington, Moscow, Tokyo and Islamabad. During the April-May 2013 stand-off at Depsang Plains, China had agreed to withdraw after India decided to remove some sheds it had erected at Chumar. Depsang and Chumar are separated by 650 km.
Posturing at play
  • New Delhi decided to ramp up its troop presence in the disputed site on September 19, asking the force to stay put till the PLA withdraws into its area
  • Between 1,800 and 2,000 Indian soldiers are currently positioned in the disputed sections as against an estimated 800 PLA soldiers on its side
  • Armed soldiers are strung across on an east-to-west axis in a 2 km-wide arch, maintaining a distance of 700m to 1.5 km, depending upon the terrain.
Making war, talking peaceChina maintains the ambiguous position on the border issue
B.G. Verghese
IT has been a turbulent week of war and peace. The Chinese President's visit was the highlight with peace being talked even as a mini-war was being waged in Ladakh, eyeball to eyeball, following Chinese objections to the construction of a small irrigation work near Demchok. Twelve trade and investment agreements were signed and the Chinese offered $20 bn worth of investment in five years to correct the present trade imbalance. Yet, the Ahmedabad Mirror reported that Northeasterers on the staff of the Hyatt Hotel were kept out of sight so as not to offend the Chinese guests. If true, this would be a sad self-goal and a rude slap in the face our Northeastern citizens.
Prime Minister Modi, however, did well to tell President Xi that while trade and other exchanges were most desirable, no real progress and lasting friendship was possible without speedy settlement of the boundary issue. Three specific issues were mentioned: defining the LAC to ensure peace, with demarcation to follow; avoidance of stapled visas, and water sharing. Water-sharing is not a real issue as China's ability to divert waters from India is modest. The real water issue lies in managing climate change, which was apparently not discussed. Both sides have much to gain from such cooperation.
As far as the border is concerned, the Chinese have since 1954 maintained the ambiguous position that matters will be settled when the time is ripe. Thus even when a section of the LAC is mutually determined, the Chinese are unwilling to demarcate it and exchange maps. India must insist on firm ground rules here.
Mr Modi did not address the media during or after the visit. He has studiously avoided speaking to the media since taking office. But all of a sudden he has come alive in a “world exclusive” interview with CNN on the eve of his US-UN visit. This seems more an exercise in self-publicity than in communication, in which he blandly suggests that Muslims in India are absolutely safe even while the BJP and the Parivar have tirelessly indulged in an unrestrained campaign of slander, lies, dire threats and the most infamous calumny against them. This will not wash unless and until he takes action against some of his leading lights for criminal incitement, hate-mongering and propagating downright lies.
The recent by-election results in which the BJP lost 13 of the 23 seats spread over 33 constituencies in nine states is indicative of growing public disenchantment with the blatant electoral politics of hate and polarisation that the BJP banked upon. It suffered in UP and Rajasthan in particular.
The BJP leader in Bihar openly declared that if Yogi Adityanath spoke in Bihar as he did in U.P. he would have been promptly contradicted. Adityanath’s rants apart, recall what some others said. Amit Shah, the BJP president declared that if Patel, not Nehru, had been “in charge” of Kashmir, the entire state would have come to India and there would have been no need for Article 370. This combines a high order of constitutional ignorance with historical illiteracy and a false pitting of Patel against Nehru in a new game of personality polarisation. Sakshi Maharaj, BJP MP, next alleged that madrasas are imparting instruction in terror and love-jihads. They do not hoist the national flag and Muslim MPs avoid functions where the national anthem is sung. The BJP disowned these outrageous statements as the personal views of the MP who, however, remains in good standing.
Then it was left to Maneka Gandhi, Minister for Women and Child Development, to claim that profits made from animal (read cow) slaughter are going to fund terrorism. This again is sheer rubbish and also betrays ignorance of the trade. The plain fact is that the bulk of cattle sold for slaughter are non-milch buffaloes and are disposed of by Hindus who cannot afford to keep dry and decrepit animals. Mechanisation of tillage and haulage has also reduced the demand for draft animals. Rather than acknowledge the facts and permit culling and rendering of animals and sales of processed beef, people are driven to illicit sales of cattle across the border to Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. Most gaushalas are rackets of bogus piety and serve no purpose. That apart, millions of "holy cows" roam the streets and forests and do much damage to the ecology.
In Madhya Pradesh, a BJP MLA, Usha Thakur, asked her followers to keep Muslims out of the Garba festival to prevent Hindu girls from being trapped in love jihad. These are demented minds that would convert beautiful national festivals that bind our diversity into occasions to preach hatred and divide communities.
No wonder the National Minorities Commission has written to the Home Minister “to restrain people in responsible positions from making irresponsible statements”. An earlier resolution by the commission was ignored. Modi sarkar does not care and has said or done nothing for months to stop this monstrous Hindutva hate jihad. And is this the man who is telling the world in an “exclusive interview” with CNN that Muslims need have no worry? Statesmanship or humbug!
Were this not enough, we have witnessed the arrogance of power in play. Ajit Singh, a former minister, has refused to vacate his bungalow despite repeated reminders, like several other defiant ministers, MPs and bureaucrats. He wants the bungalow converted into a memorial commemorating his father, Charan Singh. The Nehru-Gandhi example of endless land-grab for family memorials has created a terrible example. The Indira Gandhi National Centre for Culture and Art in the prime heart of Delhi represents the acme of land grab and the most extravagant use of space that it must disgorge to accommodate other cultural institutions.
The answer to Ajit Sigh and all similar defaulters is that their household goods should be dumped on the road and auctioned and all arrears and costs be met therefore. Protest should be met with arrest and a month's imprisonment. Do this just once under the law and the nonsense will end.
Then there is Hema Malini telling the tragic widows of Brindavan, mostly from Bengal and Bihar, not to crowd the place but remain in their home states. What impertinence from a woman who embraced Islam temporarily to marry after her partner-to-be secured talaq. What has she or the Parivar done to end the terrible plight of widows who are as yet unable to break the cruel taboo against widow remarriage, though abolished by law. These medieval bigots are the dregs of Hindu society.
Meanshile, we have Yasin Malik forcibly stealing a boat-load of rations for Srinagar’s flood affected to divert to his partisans in order to claim credit for looking after their welfare even while protesting the state's alleged indifference and incompetence in rescue and relief operations. These separatist scoundrels have thrown stones at Army and Air Force rescue teams. They deserve to be horse-whipped and locked away.
www.bgverghese.com
Chandigarh, September 22
SALUTING THE HEROES: IAF veterans pay tributes to martyrs at the War Memorial, Chandigarh Air Force Station, on Monday as part of events being organised to commemorate the golden jubilee year of the 1965 Indo-Pak war. Tribune photo: S Chandan
For a large number of Air Force veterans who had fought the 1965 Indo-Pak war, it was like turning back the hands of the clock and re-living the moments of glory as they lined up in front of the war memorial at the Chandigarh Air Force Station today.
As part of events being organised to commemorate the golden jubilee year of the war, a solemn wreath laying ceremony was held at the airbase to pay tribute to martyrs. An air Force ceremonial guard reversed arms while a bugler from the Army sounded the last post as a mark of respect to those who had laid down their lives in the line of duty.
Wreaths were laid by the Air Officer Commanding 12 Wing, Air Cmde SK Indoria, on behalf of all ranks of the station and by former Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Western Air Command, Air Marshal MM Singh, on behalf of the veterans.As many as 19 war veterans were present at the occasion. Among them were Air Marshal RS Bedi, Air Marshal PS Brar, Air Marshal SD Mohan, Air Vice-Marshal DS Nagi and nine air commodores. Air Commodore Indoria said that during the 1965 war, 12 Wing was involved in the operations from early August till the end of September to provide air transport support to the forces. Both transport squadrons based here were engaged in mobilisation of ground forces from the central India to the northern and western sectors. The only helicopter unit based at the station carried out continuous detachments from bases in Rajasthan and Gujarat. When the hostilities were eminent, 109 Helicopter Unit was again moved to Srinagar on August 15, 1965, following intelligence inputs of heavy advances by enemy forces in the Chamb sector.
A brief presentation on “Air Force Role in 1965 War” was organised by 12 Wing for serving as well as retired officers. The veterans also shared their experiences of service with the present generation of the Air Force personnel.
Jalandhar, September 22
The Vajra Corps dispatched 57 vehicles with relief material, comprising 17,200 blankets, 51,000 mineral water bottles, 49,000 kg of dry ration and other material collected from Army personnel and civilians as relief aid for the flood-affected
people of Jammu and Kashmir today.
Thirty-two military vehicles loaded with 115 tonnes of relief aid comprising 12,000 blankets, 21,000 mineral water bottles, ready-to-eat items, 21,000 kg of dry rations, 1,100 track-suits and 500 cardigans were sent to Jammu, Poonch, Akhnur and Riasi form Jalandhar by the Vajra Corps.
About 105 tonnes of material in 25 military vehicles, comprising 30,000 mineral water bottles, 5,200 blankets, a large number of clothing items like shawls, cardigans, T-shirts for gents and children and 28,000 kg of dry ration, has been dispatched to Srinagar.
The contribution collected from military personnel and civilians of Jalandhar and from other stations of Vajra Corps i.e, Ludhiana, Meerut, Ferozpur and Amritsar, has been sent for the flood victims of Jammu & Kashmir. Prior to this, eight aircraft, which includes an IL-76 aircraft, carrying relief aid, has already been delivered at Srinagar by the Corps.
Engineer Task Force and medical teams of the Corps are still deployed in the flood-affected areas of Srinagar carrying out relief and restoration operations.



INDIA’S LAND BORDERS
-         THREATS AND IMPLICATIONS
By

Lt Gen Vijay Oberoi





INTRODUCTION
            Any consideration of the land borders of a large country like India needs to start by a look at the region, particularly the peculiarities of geography. The regional security environment must also be considered.
India is a vast country that has land borders with six countries, but the small border with Afghanistan is only notional at present, as Pakistan is in illegal possession of the area, known earlier as the Northern Areas and now named as Gilgit-Baltistan. It is also important to look briefly at the historical context so that the perspective is clear.
During the colonial era, the British Indian Empire in south Asia stretched from portions of Afghanistan in the West to Burma (now Myanmar) in the East, although Afghanistan, Burma and Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) were strictly not part of the Indian empire. When the British colonial era ended, India had been partitioned and Myanmar and Sri Lanka had become independent nations. South Asia then consisted of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Maldives. Bangladesh was later added when it emerged as a new nation in 1972.
Security Environment of South Asia
The South Asian region is historically a conflict prone region, on account of the following: -

v  Legacy of colonialism, the bloody partition of India in 1947 and the break up of Pakistan in 1971.
v  Tendency to dishonor treaties demarcating boundaries settled during the British Empire, and the use of military force to realign borders.
v  The intolerant attitude of the super powers during the Cold War towards those states that sought to pursue independent policies.
v  Discord amongst ethnic, religious and linguistic groups, resulting in internal turbulence.
v  Uncontrolled population explosion, leading to poverty, illiteracy, disease, environmental degradation and unplanned urbanisation. This is compounded by demographic shifts, both within nations and across borders.
v  Nuclearisation of the region and nuclear proliferation.
v  Arms and drug trafficking, and a growing nexus between crime and politics.

The other factors influencing the security environment in South Asia are paucity of energy sources, especially oil; inadequate harnessing of the abundant water resources; the impact of the growing potential of China; the war on terrorism; the spread of fundamentalism; and the social upheaval in practically all countries, due to the rising expectations of their people.
The security-related issues of the South Asian region have both external and internal dimensions. Major internal conflicts continue in all states of the region, like the simmering discontent among the Tamil population of Sri Lanka, even though the LTTE has been eliminated in military operations; the political instability in Nepal on account of the lack of assimilation of the Maoists in the political process and the continuing threat of violence by; the Islamic fundamentalism in Bangladesh, at present muted after the change of government; the fissiparous rebellions in at least two states of Pakistan, viz. Baluchistan and Sindh, in addition to the massive flare-up of terrorism throughout the country and the continuing policy of state-sponsored terrorism and fundamentalism, which the Pakistani Army is loath to give up; and finally, the plethora of insurgencies in India. We also need to add a footnote, which is the likely spill over effect of the pull-out of western forces from Afghanistan in 2014 on many countries of South Asia.

INDIA’S LAND BORDERS

General

            India’s land borders extend from the Arabian Sea in the West; meander through varied terrain; from the deserts to plains; to low hills; to mountains, including high altitude and glaciated regions; to jungles and riverine terrain; and end in the Bay of Bengal in the east. The total length of the land borders is about 14,000 km. This includes 106 km of the border with Afghanistan, in the state of Jammu & Kashmir, which is in adverse possession of Pakistan. 
The land borders are of various categories, which include delineated borders that are clearly defined (like the international border with Pakistan that is about 3, 300 km long); temporary borders that were accepted after wars, which are clearly marked on maps and ground, like the Line of Control (LC) in J&K that is about 779 km long; other temporary borders – the delineation of which is in dispute, both on maps and ground (like the Line of Actual Control (LAC) with China); and small stretches that are under dispute but under negotiations (like some pockets on the India-Bangladesh Border). India has land borders with six countries, but if Afghanistan is excluded, then with five countries. India needs to consider all these borders, even though its problems lie with only two, viz. China and Pakistan.

Land Borders with Pakistan

With Pakistan, India has four types of borders. The first is the fully demarcated international border, commencing from the Arabian Sea in the west. It runs across the Rann of Kutch; the Thar Desert; semi-desert terrain; and ends in the plains of Punjab. It is fully demarcated and has boundary pillars. It is manned by a central armed police force - the Border Security Force (BSF). A barbed wire fence runs along its entire length, to prevent infiltrators and smugglers from entering India. The next stretch of the border, from the general area of Pathankot to around Jammu is 196 km long. India considers it as an international border, as it was the border between undivided India and the princely state of J&K before 1947. However, Pakistan calls it ‘Working Boundary’.  This stretch of the border is also manned by the BSF. It is strategically important, as the rail and road communications to J&K are in close proximity to it.
The third stretch of the border between India and Pakistan consists of the LC that runs from the vicinity of Akhnoor in J&K and ends at Point NJ9842short of the Siachin Glacier. It is a ‘live’ border, with deployment by regular troops of both India and Pakistan along its entire stretch. The length of the LC is 779 km, although the original border of J&K, before the war Pakistan had unleashed on this state was 1225 km. Despite a ceasefire existing on the LC for the last ten years, firing incidents are fairly common as the Pakistani troops resort to firing to divert the attention of the Indian troops while they assist insurgents to infiltrate in to J&K. The entire stretch has a barbed wire fence on the Indian side of the LC, which has been fairly effective in reducing infiltration, but like all obstacles needs constant monitoring.
The last stretch of the border between India and Pakistan is the Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL), 110 km in length that lies on the watershed west of the Siachin Glacier. It is fully in control of regular troops of India. Having tried a number of times and failed, the Pakistan Army is now content in only holding on to their positions on the western slopes of the watershed. It is now trying to get Indian troops to vacate, using diplomacy, as it visualizes a gullible government in India that would help them to regain these heights! The Indian Army however is convinced that it must be held on account of its strategic importance, especially when it is being squeezed by Pakistan from the west, and China from north and east, which occupies the Shaksgam tract in the north and the LAC in the east.
India and Pakistan have already fought four wars across these borders. In addition, a proxy war unleashed by Pakistan, employing insurgents and terrorists trained and fully supported by it, is being fought in J&K since 1989.

Land Borders with China
The India-China border, 3380 km long, is not demarcated and is classified as ‘disputed’. India had inherited the border from the British as a ‘traditional border’. The major portion of the border was with Tibet, which was soon secured by China and thus India commenced having an undemarcated border with China. Although the eastern portion of the border had been marked on maps, as the McMahon Line, after a tripartite meeting between British India, Tibet and China, the latter had not accepted it. Thus, the entire border is disputed and both countries have different interpretations of its alignment. India and China had fought a border war related to the border in 1962.
This is the most dangerous border from India’s view point and it needs to be resolved at the earliest. However, China does not seem to be at all anxious to resolve it, as it perceives it as a major pressure point for India. The border with China is divided in to three segments – western, central and eastern. Of these, the eastern border is likely to take the maximum time for a resolution, as the claims of China are considerable. Ultimately, only a give and take ‘package’ approach will resolve this intractable issue. Currently, many ‘Confidence Building Measures’ (CBM’s) are in place but tensions do arise on account of patrolling activity by both sides up to their perceived locations of the LAC.
With China, India faces two types of threats. The first is on the immediate land borders where China has strengthened its infrastructure as well as beefed up its armed forces. The second threat is the regional threat, as China has started asserting itself in the South China Sea and the East China Sea.

Land Borders with Other Neighbours

In the north, India also has borders with two other countries – Nepal and Bhutan. The border with Nepal is 1690 km in length and is demarcated. There is a small portion in the western portion that is disputed, but it is being resolved amicably through negotiations. The India-Nepal Border is an open border and citizens of both countries can cross the border without going through passport control. The India- Bhutan Border, 605 km in length is also demarcated and there are no disputes relating to this border.  
In the east India has land borders with two countries – Bangladesh and Myanmar. The border with Bangladesh is 4337 km long and with Myanmar it has a length of 1452 km. The borders are largely demarcated, with a few enclaves on the India-Bangladesh Border still needing final resolution. The border between India and Myanmar is also demarcated, with boundary pillars in place. Only the area of Tri-junction between India-Myanmar-China has been left un-demarcated; it will be taken up once the India-China Boundary dispute gets resolved.
By most comparisons, India’s land borders with its neighbours are vast and traverse many different types of terrain. In a large number of areas the terrain is extremely difficult. The guarding of the borders is a difficult task, and many places do lend themselves to being surreptitiously crossed. Another problem is that India’s borders are manned by a large number of military and central armed police forces, each of which has its own ethos, and each reports to a different central ministry at New Delhi, with almost no real co-ordination in managing the borders. The result is that firstly the borders continue to be porous and secondly decision-making for incidents on the border is slow. In some areas, there is dual-control, e.g. while the Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) is responsible for the LAC in Ladakh, the army too has a role, albeit not clearly defined. This needs rationalisation.

Characteristics of Land Borders 

It is important to understand the nuances of each type of border, as some lend themselves to being violated or intruded upon more than others, on account of their status. As an example, an adversary would be much more cautious in violating a delineated border than one that is temporary in nature. Hence, while formulating plans for the defence of vulnerable borders, the defender has to keep in mind this aspect too.
A historical example will further clarify this aspect. This refers to the Pakistani attack across the Cease Fire Line (CFL), (as it was then known) in the Chhamb – Jaurian Sector in the 1965 Indo – Pak War. The Pakistani strategy was to confine the war to the state of J&K, as they thought this would be more advantageous to them. They first infiltrated small irregular detachments in J&K, in a bid to cause chaos and an uprising. Since this did not meet with any success and the reaction of the Indian Army on the CFL was violent, they decided to launch conventional operations in another sector to draw out Indian forces. They selected the Chhamb Sector, as it was across the CFL and not the international border.  In their thinking, the operations would continue to be confined to the CFL, to their advantage. However, the Indian Army surprised them by launching its riposte across the demarcated border in the Amritsar-Lahore Sector.
Before proceeding further, it needs to be clarified that no war in future would be confined to the land borders, as the adversaries would employ all their forces, naval and air forces included, in addition to the land forces for defeating the enemy. However, this paper will continue to focus primarily on the land borders.

DOCTRINAL AND FORCE EMPLOYMENT ISSUES

Land Forces Employment
At this stage, it may be pertinent to have a broad look at the conventional forces that India and its neighbours with contiguous land borders have, so that the perspective is clear. The first group of countries may be referred to as ‘armed to the teeth’. These are China, India and Pakistan (in that order). All three have large land forces. The next category is those countries that field medium sized forces. These are Bangladesh, Myanmar and to a lesser extent Nepal. The last category is the country that has only nominal forces. Only Bhutan fits in to this category.
The many conflicts India has fought since Independence in 1947 have been of broadly three categories. Besides one-to-one conflicts, like in 1962 with China and with Pakistan in 1971, there have been wars/conflicts, where sub-conventional elements have also been used by Pakistan in its wars with India. Thus, the war in Kashmir in 1947 was started by Pakistan by launching so-called Raiders in the Vale of Kashmir. In 1965 too, Pakistan first sneaked in guerrillas and later enlarged the conflict when the Indian Army reacted forcefully.  The third category is a mixture of conventional and sub-conventional conflicts, where both regulars and non-regulars have been employed simultaneously. This was the case in the Kargil War of 1999.
 Limited War
 Conventional wars can be total or limited. In relation to India, all wars fought since Independence have been ‘limited wars’. This is also the case throughout the world after World War II. This trend is likely to continue.
 Effects of Nuclearisation on Conventional Conflicts
 An important factor is the nuclearisation of our region, with China, India and Pakistan possessing nuclear weapons. Although some analysts feel that nuclearisation has resulted in an end to conventional wars/conflicts, this is an incorrect assumption, as would be apparent from all three countries continuing to field large conventional land, naval and air forces.
The Indian political leadership has not fully grasped the significance and power that the holding of nuclear weapons generates for a nation. Since the military has been deliberately kept out of the policy formulation loop, the political leadership relies on advice from the bureaucrats and diplomats. Unfortunately, their knowledge of even conventional forces is extremely limited and they are pretty much ‘at sea’ about strategic issues. Diplomats who deal or have dealt with nuclear issues like NPT in international conferences do understand some aspects of nuclear issues and are able to articulate on them with confidence. However, when it comes to the strategic employment or non-employment and the importance of the deterrent value of nuclear weapons, even they have only superficial knowledge. Even those who are manning the NSC, mostly diplomats, fall in to this category.  My aim is not to denigrate these worthies but to point out the pitfalls of relying on only their advice when the chips are down.
Consequently, in situations where strategic decisions are needed for the employment and / or tasking of such weapons, our leadership tends to chicken out. This is the major reason for our political leaders to select the soft options, which essentially boil down to appeasement. The need of the hour is not to discard the hard power options and depend solely on ‘soft power’.
There are many reasons why Pakistan and or China would not use the nuclear option.  As far as the India–Pakistan equation is concerned, near parity currently prevails in conventional forces, with India only enjoying a slight edge. Resultantly, it is highly unlikely that the Indian military will cross the nuclear threshold of Pakistan, except in the rarest of circumstances. A close look at the Indo-Pakistan adversarial relationship would indicate that despite popular perception, propaganda and hype, Pakistan has not displayed extreme irrational behaviour, though the calculations of their military and political leaders in all the four wars have gone seriously wrong. The leadership of Pakistan must be fully aware that a nuclear strike by Pakistan would mean the end of that country, no matter what damage it could inflict on India. That is why nuclear weapons, even tactical ones, cannot be used. A rational understanding of this non-option is the whole basis of deterrence.
With China, the equations are different. The aim of China in the near and medium terms is to avoid war till its long term plans of becoming a super power fructify. China understands that nuclear weapons are for deterrence and not for war fighting, except in extreme cases. In the context of India, with its powerful military, where is the need for China to resort to using nuclear weapons?
Reality Check
External threats against India are many and varied. Despite many efforts made by successive Indian governments, we have been unable to resolve largely territorial and to a lesser extent other issues with both powerful China to the north and wily Pakistan to the west. We do possess the conventional capability to defeat Pakistan decisively in a conventional war, provided modernisation of the military is carried out rapidly. As far as China is concerned, since we have neglected to improve infrastructure along our northern borders for decades, the military does need time, as well as rapid modernisation, before we can successfully defeat the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) of China. The decision to raise additional forces for employing in the mountains, including a corps for offensive operations is welcome, but they need to be raised rapidly as we have already lost valuable time
There is one more important aspect that needs to be incorporated in our strategic planning. There has been some discussion in the public domain regarding dealing with a two front war. This needs to be placed in the correct perspective. Although there is a theoretical possibility of China intervening militarily in an India-Pakistan war in future, a detailed analysis would reveal that such intervention, although possible, is unlikely.
As long as the territorial dispute with China along our northern borders remains unresolved, chances of a conventional conflict do exist. However, it is highly unlikely that a major conflict would occur. It would, in all probability, be limited in nature and may be largely confined to the areas claimed by China in Ladakh and across the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Arunachal Pradesh.

CONCLUSION
 The extensive land borders of India do create major problems, not only from militaries of adversary countries, but also from smugglers, drug traffickers and illegal immigration on account of demographic imbalance in some neighbouring countries. India needs to relook at the current methodology of manning the land borders so that weaknesses can be eliminated.
A few related issues need to be highlighted. Conventional war is not only possible, but may well come about, if the manning of the land borders is not improved. At the policy level, concerns of neighbours need to be settled by negotiations, economic cooperation as well as resolving issues on the basis of give and take. At the same time it is incumbent on the government to maintain a modernised military so that should an adversary resort to the use of force, the country is able to meet it with confidence.
Nuclear war is highly unlikely, but rhetoric – mainly for the sake of domestic audiences – will remain. Nuclear stability, not just in South Asia, but throughout the world, would be better served if the present apartheid in nuclearised countries is removed and partisan and self-serving treaties like the NPT are re-evaluated and re-configured.

Saturday, September 6, 2014

AFT quashes court martial of Rath in Sukna land scam case
New Delhi, September 5
 A military tribunal today quashed the court martial of former 33 Corps Commander Lt Gen PK Rath in the Sukna land scam and imposed a fine of Rs 1 lakh on Army for "loss of honour" in the case in which he became the first serving three-star rank officer to face disciplinary action.
In 2011, a court martial found Lt Gen Rath guilty in the alleged scam for issuing a 'no-objection certificate' to a private builder for building an educational institution on a 70-acre plot adjacent to the military cantonment in Sukna in West Bengal.
Rath and Lt Gen Avdesh Prakash had faced court martials in the case but Rath was the first to have been punished.
"The petitioner is acquitted of all charges. He is entitled to restoration of all benefits with 12 per cent interest," an Armed Forces Tribunal bench headed by Justice Sunil Hali said in its judgement.
The bench said the petitioner suffered undue harassment and loss of reputation by the act of the respondents which if not compensated would be a travesty of justice.
"Therefore, as a notional compensation for the harassment and loss of honour and name caused to the petitioner, a cost of Rs 1,00,000 is to be paid by respondents," it said.
After being court martialled by an Army court comprising seven Lt Gen-rank officers, Rath had filed a petition in the AFT demanding the quashing of his General Court Martial and granting him exemplary compensation for the loss of reputation and honour. In January 2011, the GCM had punished him by awarding the sentence of loss of seniority of rank of 18 months; forfeiture of 15 years past service for the purpose of pension and severe reprimand.
Quoting the Bhagavad Gita, Justice Hali said, "People will always speak of your infamy, and for a respectable person, dishonor is worse than death."
The land scam came into the open in mid-2008 when former Army Chief Gen VK Singh was the Eastern Army Commander and had initiated the court of inquiry in the alleged land scam.

In his petition, Rath alleged that Gen VK Singh had given "undue importance" to the case as he had a "serious grudge" against the then Military Secretary Lt Gen Prakash whom he held responsible for obtaining a commitment from him on the issue of his date of birth which stood in the way of his extension of tenure as the Chief of the Army Staff. — PTI

Army Court Embarrassment for Former Army Chief VK Singh

 In major embarrassment for the Narendra Modi government, the Armed Forces Tribunal or AFT has said that former Army chief and now central minister General (retd) VK Singh violated rules, influenced a military court and harassed senior officers for "vengeance," bringing disrepute to the Indian Army.
It quashed the court martial of Lt Gen PK Rath who was posted at the 33 Corps and has ordered the Army to pay him Rs. 1 lakh for "loss of honour". The AFT observed, "The petitioner has suffered undue harassment and loss of reputation by the act of the respondents which if not compensated would be a travesty of justice."
In 2011, a court martial found Gen Rath and then military secretary Lt Gen Avdesh Prakash guilty of issuing a "no-objection certificate" to a private builder to build an educational institution on a 70-acre plot adjacent to the military cantonment in Sukna in West Bengal. 
Today, the tribunal rejected the Army's contention that the construction of the educational complex could have been a threat, saying "every activity of civilian nature adjacent to the Sukna station is a security threat cannot be accepted."
The court of inquiry in the Sukna land case was initiated by Gen VK Singh when he was the Eastern Army Commander. 
In his petition to the AFT, Gen Rath alleged that Gen VK Singh gave "undue importance" to the case as he had a "serious grudge" against Gen Prakash whom he held responsible for obtaining a commitment from him on the issue of his date of birth, which later stood in the way of an extension of his tenure as the Chief of the Army Staff.
The tribunal noted that as a result of the date of birth issue, Gen VK Singh was overlooked for being appointed Vice Chief of Army Staff and it "resulted in a vengeance in the mind of Respondent No.2 for which he held the then Military Secretary responsible and was looking for an opportunity to get even.http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/army-court-embarrassment-for-former-army-chief-vk-singh-587533
Abohar, Sepember 5

The authorities in the border district town of Sriganganagar, 40 km from Abohar, in Rajasthan today sought help from the Army as about 85 per cent of the residential areas were inundated and hundreds of houses collapsed due to rains.
Two deaths were confirmed by the Civil Hospital. The deceased were Bhura Singh Yadav (25) of Dev Nagar and Gulab Singh Sawhney (50) of Jagdamba Colony. Also, a woman, Surati Devi (45), died when a wall of the local Municipal Council collapsed on dwellings near the Life Insurance Corporation office in Raisinghnagar segment.
A team of the Army has installed ten motor pumps to drain out rain water. Arrangements were being made to divert gushing water in the link channel near Sadhuwali village, 32 km from Abohar, on the inter-state border.
Markets remained closed as all the roads were inundated with knee-deep water. As no road was motorable and more rains are expected, the week-long Bhagwat Katha at Ramlila Ground were cancelled midway. Electricity supply was disrupted last night and could not be fully restored today.
Water entered the basement of a newspaper office on Meera Marg, resulting in heavy losses. Residents from some colonies have shifted to various school complexes. Baba Deep Singh Seva Samiti and other NGOs have come forward to serve food to affected people.
Official sources said rainfall beginning Thursday has been recorded 194.6 mm. In the past, it was recorded 106 mm in 2012 and 220 mm in 1921-22.
Water Resources Department executive engineer RS Bhakar said breaches had been reported due to overflowing of Karniji, “B” farm and Hiranwali distributaries. Messages to reduce flow of water from the headworks had been flashed; plugging operations would be completed by tomorrow.
IAF personnel rescue people from flood-affected regions of Akhnoor in Jammu on Friday.
IAF personnel rescue people from flood-affected regions of Akhnoor in Jammu on Friday. PTI
Srinagar, September 5
As Kashmir battles the flood fury, the Army has launched massive rescue mission to evacuate people from flood-affected areas across the Valley to safer places.

A defence spokesman said the operation has been named as “Sahayata” (help).
“A large number of people have already been taken to safety and non-stop effort is being made to extricate people caught in critical conditions. Mission Sahayta has been launched by the Army to rescue people from critically affected areas, especially where lives were at risk,” the spokesman said.
“More than 50 columns across the Valley have been launched along engineer boats. Their teams putting themselves at great risk have rescued more than 1,500 people. The Army columns have also swung into action in and around their operating bases and provided relief and rescue to numerous other people in the Valley,” he said.

Mission Sahayta has been launched by the Army to rescue people from critically affected areas, especially where lives are at risk.
—A Defence Spokesman

Jammu, September 5
Lt Gen DS Hooda, GOC-in-C, Northern Command, along with other officers at a symposium-cum-exhibition — North Technical-2014 — in Udhampur on Friday. A Tribune Photograph
A symposium-cum-exhibition titled “North Technical-2014” was organised at Udhampur today, under the aegis of the Northern Command Headquarters.
The event was aimed at providing Army units, maintenance agencies and industry an opportunity to exhibit their innovations and display technical products at a common platform.
A large array of modern equipment related to surveillance, communication, safety and security were put on display on the occasion.
Northern Command chief Lt Gen DS Hooda also visited the symposium.
In his address, Lt General Hooda emphasised the need for all personnel to have mental mobility, spirit of innovation and out-of-box thinking in the present era of technology transition so as to effectively combine them with operational concepts for a proportional increase in combat potential and military effectiveness.
He lauded the wide participation by the industry, including defence establishments like the DRDO and BEL, in showcasing valuable products which would go a long way in equipping units and enhancing operational efficiency.
Chandigarh, September 5
A Brigadier has been cashiered from service and awarded two-year rigorous imprisonment by a general court martial for alleged misappropriation and illegal disposal of thousands of tonnes of salvage (items no longer in use) during his tenure as Commandant of the Central Ordnance Depot (COD), Agra.
Besides, a Lieutenant Colonel, who was in charge of the salvage section, has also been cashiered and awarded one-year rigorous imprisonment, while two others, a Colonel who was the deputy commandant of COD and the depot's security officer, a Captain, have been awarded loss of seniority for their role in the matter.
The GCM presided by Major General Suresh Gupta, General Officer Commanding, Lucknow sub-area, concluded today. The GCM's findings and sentence are subject to confirmation by the convening authority.
Six charges under Sections 52 (f), 63 and 69 of the Army Act pertaining to conspiracy, fraud and violation of good order and discipline had been leveled against the accused. The charges included allowing private contractors to lift thousands of tonnes of salvage from the COD, creating fake vouchers and fabricating documents and board proceedings to cover up their deeds, and intimidating witnesses to give false statements before the court of inquiry. The Brigadier also faced two additional charges under Section 57 for making false declarations before high-ups in official reports.
While the GCM held the Brigadier, the Lieutenant Colonel and Captain guilty of all charges on which they were tried, the Colonel was acquitted of the four charges of conspiracy and fraud and held guilty of two charges for violation of good order and military discipline.
All four officers had pleaded not guilty to the charges against them and had contended that a motivated case was made out against them.
A ourt of inquiry to investigate into allegations of impropriety had held the commandant of the COD, along with the other officers blameworthy of misappropriation.
TATRA SCAMLt Gen Tejinder gets bail 
Legal Correspondent
New Delhi, September 5
The Delhi High Court today granted bail to Lt Gen Tejinder Singh (retd) in the case over the truck purchase scam. Justice Pratibha Rani ordered his release on a personal bond of Rs 1 lakh and on the condition that he would not leave the country without the trial court’s permission.
The trial court had ordered his arrest for allegedly offering a bribe of Rs 14 crore in 2010 to the then army chief Gen VK Singh for clearing the purchase of 1,676 sub-standard trucks.
The HC noted that the CBI had not opposed the bail plea apprehending that he would influence the witnesses. CBI had cited the number two position held by Lt Gen T Singh in the army and the magnitude of the alleged offence. The reasons given by the trial court for denial of bail on September 1 “are against the settled legal principles” laid down the HC and the Supreme court, the judge held.
Securing civilians
Need to stop firing along the LoC
THE understanding, to avoid firing at civilians, arrived at a brigade commander-level flag meeting of Indian and Pakistani forces in Poonch district is a basic step towards ensuring peace along the border with Pakistan. The intensity of firing between troops deployed along the Line of Control (LoC) had dramatically increased recently, and there was a marked increase in death and destruction along the border. When Brigadier Sanjay Thakran and Brigadier Atiq Dar met at Chakan-Da-Bagh post, both sides traded charges over the firing incidents. However, at the end of a three-hour meeting, both officers agreed that such violations must stop. India has been particularly perturbed by the intensive firing and shelling by Pakistani troops in Jammu, Samba, Rajouri and Poonch districts. There has been retaliatory fire from the Indian side too, as the Pakistanis pointed out.
The life and property of civilians is particularly endangered during such incidents. Indeed, there have been numerous reports of how people were killed in the shelling, and of how property was destroyed. Now that this step has been taken to de-escalate the situation, people whose houses and fields are near the border will heave a sigh of relief, even as they will dread the next time shells come across the border or the guns start firing. The issue of civilians and their livestock crossing the Line of Control inadvertently was also discussed. When such incidents occur, a humanitarian approach is needed. On the other hand, care would have to be taken and vigilance exercised over the infiltration of militants through the border, a continuing issue that Indian security forces face.
The venue of the recent meeting at Chakan-Da-Bagh is also where the Trade Facilitation Centre is located. Trucks from India and Pakistan carry goods worth crores so that these can be traded across the border. Now that the two armies have worked out a settlement, the peace that should follow would provide the impetus for more trade and better economic ties. It is, surely, a much more desirable prospect than the destructive cycle of mutual shelling.
Chandigarh, September 5
Maj Gen Atul Sharma gives a certificate to Lt Col Mamta Sarin on the concluding day of a workshop at Command Hospital in Chandimandir. A TRibune Photograph
Command Hospital, Chandimandir, has achieved the capability to retrieve and harvest liver, kidney, small intestine and pancreas for organ transplant. This makes it the second service hospital to have this expertise after the Army Research and Referral (RR) Hospital, New Delhi.
A five-day Transplant Coordinators Workshop was also organised at the hospital in association with the Multi-Organ Harvesting Aid Network Foundation, the apex body dealing with organ donation in the country, which concluded today.
Officers from Command Hospital and other services hospitals of the Western Command, including the Army Research and Referral Hospital, Base Hospital, Delhi, and Military Hospitals at Ambala, Jalandhar and Pathankot, went through the counselling sessions and training modules during the workshop.
Representatives from the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, and office of the Director General Health Services (DGHS), Haryana, also attended the workshop.
Dr NK Arora, DGHS, Haryana, handed over the certificate of registration and accreditation in this regard to Maj Gen Rajvir Singh, the Hospital Commandant.
According to Col Anuj Sharma, Senior Advisor Surgical Gastroenterology and Transplant Surgeon, organ donation rate in India is abysmally low. “Command Hospital has set an example in the northern part of the country where organ donation and transplant activities are lagging behind,” added Col Sharma.
Indian army chief briefs Modi on China, Pakistan border situation

NEWDELHI: Indian Chief of Army Staff General Dalbir Singh Suhag on Friday met Prime Minister Narendra Modi and briefed him about the situation along the borders with China and Pakistan.
The army chief gave a presentation to him on important issues, army sources said in New Delhi. National Security Adviser Ajit Doval was present during the briefing, they said. The briefing came soon after the army chief visited the north-eastern region to review the operational preparedness of the formations deployed along the Line of Actual Control (LAC).
Gen Suhag had also visited Panagarh in West Bengal to review the progress made by the forces in raising the recently sanctioned 17 Mountain Strike Corps, whose formations would be deployed from Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh in northeast along the LAC.

The situation along the Pakistan front has also been volatile with an increase in ceasefire violations from both the sides along the Line of Control (LOC) and the International Border. Soon after the prime minister took over, the army had briefed him on several issues including the shortages of arms and ammunition being faced by the force.http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/national/05-Sep-2014/indian-army-chief-briefs-modi-on-china-pakistan-border-situation
Pak Army chief holds off generals seeking Nawaz Sharif's ouster
ISLAMABAD: Weeks of mounting anti-government protests in Pakistan had been enough to convince five of the powerful army's 11 Corps Commanders that it was time for them to step in and force embattled Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to resign.
According to a minister close to military circles, top generals met in the garrison city of Rawalpindi at the end of August as demonstrations raged in nearby Islamabad. Thousands of protesters had just tried to storm Sharif's residence.
At the tense, four-hour conclave, Pakistan's democratic process was once again in peril, with the military pondering another intervention in a country that has seen power change hands more often through coups than elections.
READ ALSO: Nawaz Sharif seeks Parliament support
But army chief Raheel Sharif decided the time was not right to overthrow the civilian leadership, and moved to quell any disagreement in his ranks by overruling the hawks and declaring the crisis must be solved through politics, not force.
Soon afterwards, the army issued a brief statement, reaffirming its commitment to democracy, and the threat of a coup, at least for now, had passed.
The minister, who declined to be named due to the sensitivity of discussing the inner workings of the military, said at least five generals had been pushing for weeks for the army to take a more "active role" in defusing the crisis.
"The time for the army to be neutral is over," was how the minister summed up the message from dissenters around the table.
Two military sources confirmed this version of events. They, like the minister, spoke on condition of anonymity.
A senior security source added: "Raheel Sharif is not interested in direct intervention. The tanks aren't going to come rolling in. This army believes in compromise."
The army's media wing confirmed Sunday's meeting but declined to share details. Defence minister Khawaja Asif told Reuters the army was a "monolithic institution".



Pakistani Army soldiers secure the President's office in the Red Zone in Islamabad. (EPA Photo)

"What comes out from the army is ultimately one opinion," he said. "And ... they have supported democracy."

Biding his time?
General Sharif, who is not related to the prime minister, may simply be biding his time.
If, with the help of tacit military support, Nawaz Sharif does manage to ride out twin protest movements led by cricketer-turned-opposition leader Imran Khan and activist cleric Tahir ul-Qadri, he is expected to emerge a diminished figure.
It would allow the armed forces to assume greater control of policy areas they most covet — security and foreign policy — and leave it to civilians to face public anger over internal problems such as a faltering economy and widespread power cuts.
A government insider told Reuters in August that Sharif had been assured by the military he would not be asked to step down and that there would be no coup. But in return his government would have to "share space" with the army.
Under the agreement, Sharif would be subservient to generals on issues he had wanted to handle himself - the fight against Taliban militants, relations with arch-foe India and Pakistan's role in neighbouring Afghanistan after NATO combat troops withdraw at the end of 2014.
The army chief's cautious stance may have been linked to the strong show of support for the prime minister this month in parliament, where politicians lined up to back him.
General Sharif also inherited the current team of commanders from his predecessor when he took over the top job last year, making him less secure of his position, insiders said.
But with five top security officials due to retire next month, he has a chance to appoint his own men.
"It's hard to imagine an army chief trying to actively intervene or do something drastic when he isn't 100 percent sure his team will back him," said a defence ministry source.
"Next month ... he will have four of his own Corps Commanders. He'll have his own intelligence chief. Then he'll be a man to watch out for."
Spy chief Zaheer-ul-Islam, one of the five departing officers, was among those pushing for the prime minister's ouster, according to three senior government sources.
"It is not the army but elements within the ISI that have been backing Imran to get rid of Nawaz," said one of the sources, referring to Pakistan's most powerful security body, the military's Inter-Services Intelligence agency.
A senior ISI official said: "It is baseless to say the ISI is involved, but the fact is that this government has not delivered. No one will support it unconditionally."
Khan, who like Qadri accuses the prime minister of rigging the 2013 election and demands that he steps down, denies acting on anyone's orders.




Imran Khan, chairman of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI), gestures to supporters in Islamabad. (Reuters Photo)

Hope quickly faded
A year ago, few would have predicted that Nawaz Sharif would be in such trouble.
Back then, he had just swept to power for a third time in a milestone poll that marked nuclear-armed Pakistan's first transition from one elected government to another.
But in the months that followed, Sharif, who crossed swords with the army in the past, moved to enhance the influence of the civilian government in a country ruled by the military for more than half of its brief and turbulent history.
Sharif further irked the generals by putting former military head and president Pervez Musharraf, who ended Sharif's last stint in power in a 1999 coup, on trial for treason.

His principle goals were to improve trade relations with India, convince Afghanistan that Pakistan would not meddle in its affairs and find a negotiated peace settlement with Islamist Taliban insurgents fighting against his rule.
But with the more conservative-minded military back in the driving seat, it would be much harder for Sharif to deliver on the rapprochement with India that he promised Indian officials when he won the election.
It could also affect how Pakistan emerges from a regional tussle for influence in Afghanistan once the majority of foreign soldiers serving there return home.
"Nawaz is the biggest loser here," said a government official. "Coup or no coup, the democratic transition has been badly disrupted."http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/World/Pakistan/Pak-Army-chief-holds-off-generals-seeking-Nawaz-Sharifs-ouster/articleshow/41807080.cms
Danger from ISIS and Al Qaeda; What India should do

Close on the heels of shocking revelations about the increasing activities of ISIS to recruit Indian youth for nefarious acts of terror, Al Qaida has come out with a new video which declares their setting up of a separate entity for operations in India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. The new entity has been named Qaedat-al-Jihad and is a reflection of Al Qaeda's sinister quest to expand its operations more into South Asia and especially into India. Why India should not take these threats lightly.... There are several reasons for which this development is not to be taken lightly. In the first place, it was always a foregone conclusion that with the gradual exit of US led Coalition Forces from Afghanistan, the attention of all the Jihadi elements including Al Qaeda and also Teheek-e-Taliban would shift towards India. The pattern in which it is destined to happen is very similar to the manner in which just after the exit of the Soviet led forces from Afghanistan, a large number of literally jobless Mujahids were reoriented towards J&K by Pakistan. That was the time when terrorism in J&K started. Therefore it is nothing surprising that Al Qaeda is gradually upping the ante towards that objective again. Is the rise of ISIS pushing Al Qaeda to spread its wings too? In the same league it has also to be kept in mind that the phoenix like rise of ISIS, the kind of brutality and hatred they have propagated, their battlefield success in terms of being able to conquer large swathe of land in Northern Iraq and Northern Syria and their promulgation and propagation of violent extremist ideology have got the attention and made many such radical elements across Middle East and even in South Asia shift their allegiance towards ISIS from Al Qaeda, thereby making Al Qaeda losing much of its prominence and supremacy in the terror world. Thus Al Qaeda needed to do something like this release of video to vindicate that they are still in the fray. Is there a Pakistan hand behind the Al Qaeda Plans for India? However, over the last several years, Al Qaeda has been battered and had suffered loss of a large number of its top and middle rung leaders including Osama Bin Laden, Ilyas Kashmiri, Atiyah Abd al-Rahman, Anwar al-Awlaki and Saaed al-Sherhri were killed by US drones attack. Today Al Qaeda remains merely a shadow of what it used to be and thus it is not in a position to orchestrate what it plans for India without the active help of Pakistan and other radical Islamic terror groups like Lashkar-e-Taiba or Jaish-e-Muhammad. Therefore, even while the release of the video is mostly out of the quest of Al Qaeda to rake up its depleting stock and motivate its cadres, the Pakistan hand behind it cannot be ruled out at all. Al Qaeda's top leader Ayman Al Zawahiri who is on the run now, is suspected to be hiding in Pakistan much in the way Osama Bin Laden was hiding. With increasing radicalism in Pakistan and with terror groups like Tehreek e Taliban now in full blown war with the Pakistani establishment, Pakistan has been attempting to galvanise many of these elements towards something which would reduce their activities inside Pakistan and Pakistan would be able to channelize them to fulfil its own objective of continuing with its proxy war in India or attempt to take it beyond that. Pakistan's attitude towards India has not changed one bit over the last many years and proof enough of that is the manner in which Nawaz Sharif Government faced the brunt of the Pakistan Army backed mass agitation by opposition parties led by Imran Khan primarily because Sharif had attempted to improve ties with India. That Pakistan would again attempt to provoke a new wave of terrorism or a Kargil kind of operation in India, is a foregone conclusion and is only a matter of time. Mayhem in Sryia & Iraq- Proof enough of what Al Qaeda and ISIS can do in India Nevertheless, whatever the case might be, India cannot take either the increasing influence of ISIS or Al Qaeda's orientation towards India, lightly. Both the threats are clear and present and the kind of mayhem they are capable of orchestrating is evident from the devastation they have created in Iraq and Syria. In many other countries of Africa and Middle East as well, several affiliates of Al Qaeda or ISIS are now doing the same havoc as they have been planning to do in India. There is no doubt Pakistan's ISI in collaboration with LeT and Indian Mujahideen have created enough sleeper cells in India and the increasing spread of Wahhabism in India have also created the some extremely dangerous pockets of extremist ideology which the ISIS and Al Qaeda would surely try to harvest. Therefore it is imperative for India to make sure that it no more consider these issues as mere law & order issues or presume that there is no need to be alarmed. The situation in Syria and Iraq or in Libya or Afghanistan is proof enough what these fanatic extremist groups can do if not nipped in the bud. Is it time for India to reform its internal security architecture? It is high time for India to have drastic changes in the internal security architecture and give more powers to the central intelligence and investigation agencies for more pre-emptive actions against terror modules and sleepers cells present inside the country. It is important for India to realise that what ISIS or Al Qaeda is planning to do in India is nothing less than waging a war against the nation and thus such threats should be treated as national security issues instead of merely considering them as normal issues of organised crime which constituent state level police forces can handle. The mess that Maharahstra Police created during 26/11 was proof enough of lack of capacity or ability of state level police forces to take on a large number of terrorists when they attack in unison. The need of the hour is for the Central Government to bring in constitutional change if needed and take lead in dealing with all issues related to national security, be it internal or external. It has to be remembered that terrorism can no longer be treated as a law & order issues but a national security issue and if needed not just Central security agencies but also the Indian Army would be needed to get involved if such threats are to be nipped in the bud. Time for Centre to take the lead role in internal security roles as well. The archetypal culture of central agencies like Intelligence Bureau (IB) passing on information to the states and expecting them to do the task of fighting terror modules, may not work anymore. And needless to say that most state level police forces in India are incapable of handling such terror groups on their own. The need of the hour is to follow the FBI model of an integrated approach and merging organisations like IB, NIA, NSG, NTRO into one integrated organisation based on the critical pillars of intelligence gathering, analysis, special operations, investigation and follow-up prosecution. There is also the need to have American type Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) wherein state level and central level security agencies work in unison for fighting terrorism and pre-empting terror modules at the grass-roots level with Central Police Forces working as a backup as and when needed. The threat of Al Qaeda and ISIS and their collaboration with Indian Mujahideen kind of organisations in India as well as their strong linkages with Pakistan based terror groups like LeT or the ISI, is proof enough of the strong external dimension of internal security threats in India. India has always taken its external security more seriously and now it is time to take internal security on a war footing, because the internal and external divisions of security are blurring quickly. http://news.oneindia.in/feature/danger-from-isis-al-qaeda-what-india-should-do-1516217.html

Nuclear Pakistan's Spies Target India—and Their Own Prime Minister

Just when you thought the world was dangerous enough, another crisis between nuclear weapons-armed India and Pakistan is brewing, and now al Qaeda is adding fuel to the fire by calling for jihad in the subcontinent.Tensions have been growing all summer long, even though, ironically, things began on a positive high note: In June, newly elected Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who swept into power on a landslide, invited his Pakistan counterpart, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, to his inauguration.Behind this unprecedented gesture, however, darker forces were planning a different sort of event. A squad of heavily armed terrorists attacked the Indian consulate in Herat, Afghanistan, right on the eve of the inauguration. They planned to take Indian diplomats hostage and then execute them as Modi was took office. Fortunately the Indian security guards at the consulate killed all the attackers.The U.S. State Department publicly blamed Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, the group which attacked Mumbai in 2008. LeT is very close to the Pakistani military’s Inter Services Intelligence Directorate, or ISI. LeT would not have taken such a highly provocative action without at least some advance nod from the Pakistani spies in the ISI and the generals who command them. LeT’s leader, Hafeez Saeed, lives openly in Pakistan, frequently appears on television denouncing the United States, and is the darling of the ISI.If there is another LeT attack like the one in Mumbai or the one in Herat, it will provoke the most serious crisis in years between India and Pakistan, and the more that can be done by the United States and other to prevent such a disaster the better. But it won’t be easy.On Wednesday, to complicate the situation further, al Qaeda released a new videotape of its leader, Ayman Zawahiri, announcing the creation of an al Qaeda franchise in India. Zawahiri made the tape in his hideout in Pakistan, no doubt, and many Indians suspect the ISI is helping to protect him. Zawahiri has longstanding links to LeT and to Saeed. The 55-minute video is Zawahiri’s first this year and threatens jihadist attacks across India.The domestic politics of Pakistan are central to this drama, and to this threat.One of the goals of the Herat operation was to discredit Sharif, who has no control over the ISI or the Pakistani army. Since he was elected in his own landslide victory last year, the army has become increasingly unhappy with Sharif. They are very upset that he has put the former army dictator Pervez Musharraf on trial for treason and did not just let him leave the country quietly. Musharraf ousted Sharif in a coup in 1999, and while the army doesn’t care that much for Musharraf, it does not like the judicial system holding a general accountable for coups. For them that sets a bad precedent.The army also was unhappy with Sharif’s reluctance to take on Pakistan’s own militant extremists, the Pakistan Taliban. Sharif wanted to talk to the Taliban; the army, for once, wanted to fight. Sharif ultimately gave in.Meanwhile, violence has surged along the line of control in Kashmir, the province disputed by India and Pakistan since 1947 and the cause of several wars. This week the Indian army discovered a tunnel built under the line to infiltrate terrorists into Kashmir. Routine diplomatic talks between India and Pakistan have been suspended because Modi called them off when Pakistani diplomats met with Kashmiri leaders, a practice previously tolerated by New Delhi. Sharif had been urging deescalating the Indo-Pakistan rivalry and cutting back on the arms race, positions the army hardliners find threatening.Sharif has been under siege—literally—in his office in Islamabad for the last couple of weeks, surrounded by an angry mob led by Pakistan’s famous photogenic cricket star and politician Imran Khan. Allied with a Canadian-Pakistani Islamic preacher, Khan has called for Sharif to resign. His movement has little nationwide popular support and there have been no demonstrations in other Pakistani cities backing his call, but it has kept Sharif preoccupied for weeks. Khan’s critics say he is being manipulated by the ISI to try to bring down Sharif or at least to neuter him. The army and the ISI were effective in neutering Sharif’s predecessor, Asif Zardari. In fact, that was a key goal achieved by the Mumbai attack in 2008. They want to neutralize Sharif by any means possible.In short, the Pakistani army and its ISI spies are once again playing with fire—with India, the LeT and Kashmir—in order to secure domestic gains against their civilian leaders. Sharif is a weak prime minister today, just as he was the last two times he held that position in the 1990s, but he is the elected leader of the country. He should be allowed to finish his time in office.The U.S. should step up intelligence cooperation with India to prevent and deter attacks such as the ones in Mumbai and Herat. Even if a terrorist action cannot be foiled, the more information exchanged about Pakistani ISI involvement with LeT, the more likely the U.S. will have credibility with New Delhi if a crisis does occur.The United States should also consider a unilateral step if another attack occurs, threatening to place Pakistan on the State Department list of states sponsoring terrorism. America would treat Pakistan as a pariah like North Korea. It certainly meets the criteria and has for decades. The first Bush administration seriously considered this measure in 1992, although such a step obviously would have immense consequences for U.S.-Pakistan relations.A more limited option would be to target specific sanctions against individual Pakistani officials involved in supporting terrorism, like members of ISI’s “S” branch that handles liaison with LeT, the Haqqani network and others. A targeted sanctions move against specific Pakistani military officials would send a strong deterrent message to the Pakistani army and could be a warning shot before putting Pakistan on the list of terror patrons.Finally there should be contingency planning between Washington and New Delhi about managing a future Indo-Pakistan crisis like the Mumbai crisis. This would be intended to create dialogue, not creat a platform to gang up on Pakistan. But in any case it would be prudent to plan for the worst.This piece was originally published by The Daily Beast.http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2014/09/04-pakistan-spies-target-india-and-their-own-prime-minister-riedel

Modern artillery may give a boost to army’s firepower

After an almost 26-year wait, the Indian Army may finally lay its hands on what are being touted as modern artillery guns developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation.The army will get 40 self-propelled guns (SPG), recently developed by the Chennai-based Central Vehicle Research and Development Establishment of DRDO, worth R820 crore to meet the force's requirements, sources said.Though these 130-mm guns will not be a substitute to the aging Bofors received from Sweden in 1986, or the ultra-light Howitzers, they will help bolster the force's firepower.The gun's system, called in artillery terminology a “catapult”, comprises a 130-mm gun mounted on a main battle tank (MBT) — in this case, the chassis of the DRDO-developed Arjun tank — allowing it to keep up with tank columns and provide them support in battle. “Catapult is mainly used to engage in indirect fire. Its targets are enemy artillery units, tanks, troops at their concentration areas, permanent defensive installations and other field fortifications,” said an officer. “The gun has an indirect firing range of 27.4 km, and direct firing range of 1.4 km. It can be fired at various angles of elevation as well. But, it is surely not a substitute to high-end artillery like Howitzers,” an officer said.Sources said the army's 220 artillery regiments have received no new artillery since the 1980s, when the FH-77B, 155-mm/39-calibre Bofors were bought from Sweden. However, after allegations of kickbacks, only 400 Bofors guns were delivered and rest of the contract annulled.But, the Ordnance Factory Board’s effort to build a 155-mm/45-calibre indigenous gun is facing trouble after the gun barrel was burst during its trials. The procurement of 145 M777 Ultra-Light Howitzers through the the US Government also stands cancelled due to cost issues and because the vendor's proposal is not fully compliant to the offset requirements, the defence ministry claims.The defence ministry has already put in place a R35,000-crore plan to modernise artillery.In the long run, the armed forces could provide orders worth over R1.5 lakh crore to domestic companies. Already, Tata Power Strategic Electronics Division, L&T and Bharat Forge are engaged in developing prototype of this gun so that they can get into production of these advanced guns after approval by the end-user, which is the army in this case. The Modi-led government  has also cleared more support to the DRDO-developed Arjun tank by renewing a R6,600-crore clearancehttp://www.financialexpress.com/news/modern-artillery-may-give-a-boost-to-army-s-firepower/1286048

IAF to Commemorate 50 Years of Indo-Pak War

NEW DELHI: The IAF has lined up several programmes to commemorate its role in the 1965 war with Pakistan.     "The IAF is commemorating 50 years of 1965 Indo-Pak War by organising various events like seminars, photo exhibition and homage to martyrs.The contribution of our air veterans who participated in this war need to be duly acknowledged by appropriately revisiting this historical event," IAF spokesperson Wg Cdr Rochelle D'Silva said.     In this regard, a seminar will be held here tomorrow which will be presided over by IAF Chief Arup Raha.     
Various veterans will express their views on the role of the Air Force in the war and one of the sessions would be chaired by former IAF chief SP Tyagi.http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/IAF-to-Commemorate-50-Years-of-Indo-Pak-War/2014/09/04/article2414514.ece
'The Chinese fired at my aircraft': Brave former pilots gather to remember more than half a century of heroism in the IAF
Between the insulting defeat in 1962 at the hands of the Chinese and attaining the glorious heights with the victory in 1971 leading to the creation of Bangladesh, the Indian armed forces had a mixed-bag experience in the 22-day war with Pakistan in 1965.
In the run up to the 50th anniversary of the 1965 war, dissection of the conflict has begun with the Indian Air Force (IAF) veterans gathering in New Delhi on Friday to dissect what was the first full-blown air battle between the arch-rivals.
It was the test of the IAF's combat worthiness against the Pakistan Air Force's (PAF) formidable fleet of F-86F Sabres and superior air defence capabilities.
The 1965 war was the test of the
IAF's combat worthiness against the
Pakistan Air Force's formidable
fleet of F-86F Sabres and superior air
defence capabilities
The 1965 war was the test of the IAF's combat worthiness against the Pakistan Air Force's formidable fleet of F-86F Sabres and superior air defence capabilities
The result of the first air battles is highly contested with the "Sabre slayer" IAF taking significant hits with high rate of attrition and the PAF despite its much smaller size rattling the Indians with the devastation of the Pathankot base on September 6, 1965.
One of the first strikes saw the IAF lose more than 10 aircraft on ground.
 
The subsequent PAF strikes, however, on Adampur and Halwara were repulsed.
The war broke out when the IAF's modernisation plan was still taking off and the Pakistan Air Force had already stolen the march after signing the Baghdad pact and becoming a US ally.
The Americans had armed Pakistan with F- 104s, F-86 Sabres, B-57 bombers and advanced air defence radars.
The Indian Air Force was still struggling with obsolete fleet of Vampires, Toofanis and Mystere fighters.
It had added a modest second generation aircraft fleet of the Gnats and Hawker Hunters and the Canberra bombers. 
Indian Air Force
jawans arming a
Hawker Hunter
aircraft in Halwara in September 1965
Indian Air Force jawans arming a Hawker Hunter aircraft in Halwara in September 1965
Gnats getting ready to go out on another mission at the
forward base in September 1965
Gnats getting ready to go out on another mission at the forward base in September 1965
Wreckage of
a Pakistani aircraft
Sabre that was shot
down over Halwara
Wreckage of a Pakistani aircraft Sabre that was shot down over Halwara
Even Hunters and Gnats faced problems of gun stoppages.
The PAF's air raid on the Kalaikunda base in the eastern sector destroying 10 Indian aircraft on the ground was left unchallenged.
The IAF was numerically much stronger in the east, but the front remained dormant.
At a seminar on the 1965 war, IAF chief Arup Raha talked about the four elements of the Pakistan's operations.
The first came in the form of probing encounter on April 8 in the Rann of Kutch in Operation Desert Hawk.
It was followed by Operation Gibraltar to infiltrate into Jammu and Kashmir in August.
A full-scale assault followed through Operation Grand Slam in the Chhamb sector and an armoured attack on Amritsar.
The IAF veterans said the 1965 war was a preparatory exercise for the subsequent 1971 war.
Air Marshal Manjit Singh Sekhon said the experiences of the 1965 war proved useful in 1971 in nailing down the PAF.
IAF and PAF fleet in 1965
Despite the rivalry, the veterans also credited their PAF counterparts for their professionalism.
Flying officer V. Dutta recalled how the precise bombing by a Pakistan flight commander had destroyed the Jamnagar base.
The PAF aircraft was shot down but not before it had crippled the airfield, he recalled.
Dutta had carried the diary recovered from the Pakistani pilot to New Delhi as it contained key information.
One of the major problems for the IAF which still persists is the intelligence failure.
It was the hallmark of the 1965 operations as the Indians were completely surprised by the offensive from Pakistan.

'THE CHINESE FIRED AT MY AIRCRAFT': VETERAN SHARES TALES OF HEROISM IN THE 1962 DEBACLE THAT PRECEDED THE INDIA-PAKISTAN WAR

For Wing Commander Jag
Mohan Nath (retd.), who holds
the rare distinction of being
awarded two Maha Vir Chakras,
the narrative of 1965 war
begins with the 1962 debacle
on the China border
For Wing Commander Jag Mohan Nath (retd.), who holds the rare distinction of being awarded two Maha Vir Chakras, the narrative of 1965 war begins with the 1962 debacle on the China border
For Wing Commander Jag Mohan Nath (retd.), who holds the rare distinction of being awarded two Maha Vir Chakras, the narrative of 1965 war begins with the 1962 debacle on the China border. Nath said that the main problem during those days was the reluctance to fully exploit the potential of the air power. 
Speaking to Mail Today, Nath, who was in New Delhi to attend a seminar on the 1965 war, recalled how he had photographed Chinese build up in Aksai Chin in his Canberra. 
The photographs were shown to the PM and the then defence minister but New Delhi developed cold feet as it feared backlash from China.
"I was falling slow at almost stall speed. The Chinese could see me clearly and even fired at my aircraft," he said adding that if they really had air power they could have scrambled fighters to intercept his craft. But nothing happened. "They did not even have anti-aircraft gun to take down," he said. 
"I was fired upon only by the small arms. It is impossible to down an aircraft like that," he said. Nath had closed similar reconnaissance sorties in the North East Frontier Agency. 
His effort of flying in hazardous conditions earned him Maha Vir Chakra for 1962 operations. 
He repeated the feat in 1965 and received bar to Maha Vir Chakra. He holds unique distinction of flying the aircraft for 11 years. 
Nath carried out several reconnaissance missions deep inside Pakistan picking up targets for the IAF fighter jets. 
The Canberras would fly high to escape radar detection. Mail Today/New Delhi
Honored veterans
 This has been published today on "THE TELEGRAPH" to which our loving CM reads regular. I hope, this time he will awake.
 JAI HIND
 Bidyadhar Nayak
POR(Spl),IN
General Secretary
Indian Ex-Services League Odisha
9658859424
 Note:- My service from Navy to Army wrongly published as "former Army Jawan" which I carry  as pride.
Missing a defence minister

Written by C Uday Bhaskar | September 4, 2014 12:15 am
The Narendra Modi government is under a 100-day review. The manner in which defence and related military challenges have been addressed is instructive of the complex issues ahead.
Prime Minister Modi got off to a visually spectacular start when he made his maiden defence-related visit to the aircraft carrier, INS Vikramaditya, less than a month after being sworn in. He sailed down the coast of Goa and recalled India’s rich but long-neglected maritime heritage and assured the armed forces that their many inadequacies would be addressed. He assured veterans that the long-festering “one rank, one pension” issue would be resolved in a satisfactory manner. Maintaining this tempo, the PM commissioned INS Kolkata, an indigenously designed and built warship, visited Leh and addressed the troops there, and exhorted the scientists of the DRDO to work with greater dedication to enhance India’s indigenous defence production capability. For a 100-day period, this is an impressive track record.
But the challenge lies in implementing new policies in the ministry of defence and addressing the many imbalances that were inherited from the UPA. The greatest handicap is the absence of a full-time defence minister. Though undoubtedly competent, Arun Jaitley can only do so much.
The spectrum of issues that need urgent attention range from the poor material state of all three armed forces, particularly the shrinking ammunition stocks of the army, and a burgeoning import bill with no credible alternative to frayed civil-military relations and the disturbing perception of a decline in moral fibre of the military.
The professionalism and apolitical character of the military has been a distinctive characteristic that has enabled the Indian democratic trajectory. This was perhaps most evident during the Emergency, when the military apex refused to be co-opted into the constitutional excesses that were at play.
Paradoxically, the challenge of higher defence management received progressively less political attention and some of the revelations in recently published books point to petulant impulsiveness as the defining trait of higher defence decision-making. Sri Lanka and the IPKF is a case in point. The normative compulsion was replaced by what may be best described as the Bofors-HDW syndrome, where scandals and charges of turpitude at the highest levels of government became the dominant perception.
The transition from Rajiv Gandhi to the current incumbent marks a quarter century and the challenge for the 100-day-old Modi government is herculean — the defence/ military stables have to be cleaned, the entire edifice of the management of national security has to be comprehensively reviewed and rearranged.
A brief review of the military challenges of the last three months reveals the following. The Supreme Court found it necessary to caution the government for the manner in which it had dealt with the sale of non-service pattern weapons by senior army officers. A continued…
- See more at: http://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/missing-a-defence-minister/#sthash.RaIgGMvy.dpuf

Japan wooing India to contain China: Chinese daily

Beijing: Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is wooing India to contain China on its eastern and western fronts, a prominent Chinese commentator stated Friday following Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi`s five-day visit to Japan that concluded Wednesday.
"Abe wants to build a close security partnership with India so as to contain China on both its eastern and western fronts. It also wants support in its territorial dispute with China," the China Daily said in an opinion piece written by Cai Hong, the newspaper`s Tokyo bureau chief, headlined "Abe woos Modi in a bid to contain China".
"Abe, who has sought to build security options for Japan beyond the current US-centric framework, has argued that his country`s ties with India hold `the greatest potential of any bilateral relationship anywhere in the world`," it stated.It said, on his part, Modi was "seeking to strengthen economic and strategic cooperation with partners in East and Southeast Asia as part of his government`s `Look East` strategy".
Stating that comparisons are often made between Modi and Abe, it pointed out that while Modi is the first Indian prime minister to be born after India`s independence, Abe is the first Japanese prime minister to be born after World War II."Modi and Abe are both assertive nationalists who came to power on platforms pledging economic revival and bolstering their countries` defences and strategic partnerships with like-minded states," the opinion piece stated.
Stating that Modi has forged a personal rapport with Abe, it pointed out that "when Abe returned to power, Modi broke diplomatic protocol and called to congratulate him despite the fact that he was chief minister of India`s western state of Gujarat rather than a head of state".
It said that this relation between the two leaders will also help boost Japan-India defence equipment and technology cooperation.
"Japan is mulling over exporting its maritime self-defense force`s US-2 amphibious search-and-rescue aircraft to India. The plane, which has the capability to land on rough seas with waves of up to three metres and is suitable for long-range civilian and military applications, costs an estimated $110 million per unit."It said that while the Indian Navy was keen to acquire this expensive aircraft, Japan was planning to give low interest loans to help India acquire it.
"The sale of the US-2 amphibious aircraft will open up Japan`s defense industry for additional contracts with foreign partners and stimulate Japan`s defense industry," the Chinese daily stated.
It also mentioned that the two countries were also negotiating a civilian nuclear deal.
"The pact with India would give Japanese nuclear technology firms such as Toshiba Corp and Hitachi Ltd access to India`s fast-growing market as they seek opportunities overseas to offset the anti-nuclear backlash at home in response to the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster."
It mentioned that India operates 20 mostly small nuclear reactors in six sites with a capacity of 4,780 MW, or 2 percent of its total power capacity."The Indian government hopes to increase its nuclear capacity to 63,000 MW by 2032 by adding nearly 30 reactors."Japan and India will also launch a "two plus two" dialogue, involving their foreign and defence ministers, a process that Japan has only followed with the US, Australia and France.http://zeenews.india.com/news/nation/japan-wooing-india-to-contain-china-chinese-daily_1465435.html
'Pakistan army, ISI stage-managing al-Qaida advance into India'
WASHINGTON: Pakistan should be warned that it will be placed on the list of states sponsoring terrorism, a former US official and intelligence analyst said on Thursday, while accusing the Pakistani military of stage-managing the latest al-Qaida advance into India in order to strengthen its stranglehold over Pakistani domestic politics.
Amid growing concern in New Delhi over the formation of new al-Qaida affiliate in India and the spread of the ISIS, Bruce Riedel, a former CIA analyst and National Security Council official for South Asia, bluntly pointed to the Pakistan military and its intelligence outfit ISI for the renewed terror threats against India. He said there was no doubt that al-Qaida leader Ayman Al Zawahiri made the latest tape (threatening jihadist attacks across India) in his hideout in Pakistan, protected, as New Delhi suspects, by the ISI.
"The domestic politics of Pakistan are central to this drama, and to this threat," Riedel wrote in his column. "In short, the Pakistani army and its ISI spies are once again playing with fire — with India, the LeT and Kashmir — in order to secure domestic gains against their civilian leaders."

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Al-Qaida's jihad call a recruitment gimmick?

In a US Capital that is totally lost in the fog or Iraq-Syria and Ukraine, Riedel drew attention to the growing dangers of renewed confrontation between Pakistan and India, provoked by the Pakistani military to strengthen its own hand in Pakistan, saying the United States should consider a unilateral step if another attack occurs like the one in Mumbai or on the Indian consulate in Heart: Washington should threaten to place Pakistan on the State Department list of states sponsoring terrorism; at the very least there should be specific sanctions.

"America would treat Pakistan as a pariah like North Korea. It certainly meets the criteria and has for decades. The first Bush administration seriously considered this measure in 1992, although such a step obviously would have immense consequences for US-Pakistan relations," Riedel wrote, suggesting that a more limited option would be to target specific sanctions against individual Pakistani officials involved in supporting terrorism, like members of ISI's "S" branch that handles liaison with LeT, the Haqqani network and others.

"A targeted sanctions move against specific Pakistani military officials would send a strong deterrent message to the Pakistani army and could be a warning shot before putting Pakistan on the list of terror patrons," Riedel advised, suggesting that there should also be contingency planning between Washington and New Delhi about managing a future Indo-Pakistan crisis like the Mumbai crisis. This, he said, would be intended to create dialogue, not create a platform to gang up on Pakistan, but in any case it would be prudent to plan for the worst.

Riedel said the terrorist attack on the Indian consulate in Herat, Afghanistan, was aimed at discrediting Pakistan's prime minister Nawaz Sharif, who has no control over the ISI or the Army, and cornering and provoking India's newly elected Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

"Since he was elected in his own landslide victory last year, the army has become increasingly unhappy with Sharif. They are very upset that he has put the former army dictator Pervez Musharraf on trial for treason and did not just let him leave the country quietly. Musharraf ousted Sharif in a coup in 1999, and while the army doesn't care that much for Musharraf, it does not like the judicial system holding a general accountable for coups. For them that sets a bad precedent," Riedel said, adding that another provocation was Sharif had been urging deescalating the Indo-Pakistan rivalry and cutting back on the arms race, positions the army hardliners find threatening.

Riedel also noted that the US State Department publicly blamed Lashkar-e-Taiba, the group which attacked Mumbai in 2008 for the Herat attack on the eve of Modi's inauguration in which it had planned to take Indian diplomats hostage and then execute them as Modi was took office.



(Security forces take position on the rooftop of a residential building during an attack on the Indian consulate in Herat province on May 23, 2014. Photo: Reuters)

"LeT is very close to the Pakistani military's Inter Services Intelligence Directorate or ISI. LeT would not have taken such a highly provocative action without at least some advance nod from the Pakistani spies in the ISI and the generals who command them. LeT's leader, Hafeez Saeed, lives openly in Pakistan, frequently appears on television denouncing the United States, and is the darling of the ISI," Riedel said, advising Washington to tighten the screws on Pakistan.

"If there is another LeT attack like the one in Mumbai or the one in Herat, it will provoke the most serious crisis in years between India and Pakistan, and the more that can be done by the United States and other to prevent such a disaster the better. But it won't be easy," Riedel warned.http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Pakistan-army-ISI-stage-managing-al-Qaida-advance-into-India/articleshow/41815543.cms?intenttarget=no&utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=Top_Headlines

Lore of the Jullundur Brigade
The 8th (Jullundur) Brigade, which was part of the 3rd (Lahore) Division that fought during World War I, showed exemplary courage

Pushpindar Singh Chopra
Maharaja Bhupinder Singh of Patiala visits troops from Patiala, who were part of the brigade, at the frontlines in France

ALMOST exactly one hundred years back, the Indian Army was drawn in to the vortex of the most terrible war mankind had known, after Germany invaded Belgium on August 4, 1914, which was followed by Britain’s ultimatum the same day. Two days later, the Government of India offered a corps of two infantry and two cavalry divisions for service "wherever required".
Column within the Indian Army Memorial at Neuve Chapelle
Column within the Indian Army Memorial at Neuve Chapelle
On lower part of the memorial is inscribed in English 'God is One, His is the Victory’, with similar text in Urdu, Hindi and Gurmukhi
On lower part of the memorial is inscribed in English 'God is One, His is the Victory’, with similar text in Urdu, Hindi and Gurmukhi. Photos by the writer
The Indian Army was then largely committed on the North West Frontier but remarkably, just 20 days after the commencement of war, the first Indian combat troops of the 3rd (Lahore) Division had sailed from Karachi and Bombay westwards, vanguard of the million more who were to follow. Instead of Egypt, however, the Indian Expeditionary Force were diverted to France where the British Expeditionary Force were shattered and exhausted after two months of bitter fighting against the German Army's overwhelming numbers.
Among the Indian Corps was a unique formation, the 8th (Jullundur) Brigade, which was part of the 3rd (Lahore) Division and destined for glory in war. This brigade essentially comprised three battalions, which were the 1st Manchesters, 47th Sikhs, and 59th (Scinde) Rifles Frontier Force. Also included were troops from the State Forces, particularly Patiala. Other battalions were attached for short periods but the core three regiments, which still remain today are, respectively, the 2nd Battalion, the Duke of Lancasters’ Regiment of the British Army, 5th Battalion the Sikh Regiment of the Indian Army, and the 1st Battalion (Scinde) Frontier Force Regiment of the Pakistan Army. Once a year, boundaries are forgotten, and former officers from all three regiments share memories in honour of that close association of the past. The story of how a seven-year comradeship turned into a lifelong association is almost a contemporary Buddhist parable – with a strong message.
Map of the Neuve Chapelle battle area
Map of the Neuve Chapelle battle area
Recalled is this 100-year-old association of ‘blood brothers in arms’, the troops having lived together in peacetime while stationed in Jullundur in the Punjab and then fighting together during the Great War of 1914-1918.
In 1911, the Manchester Regiment were grouped together with 47th Sikhs and 59th Frontier Force to form the 8th Brigade, based in Jullundur. The peaceful pre-war years provided them with enough leisure time to play football and cricket against each other, and participate in other social activities such as drama clubs, and concerts. When war broke out in August 1914, the Jullundur Brigade sailed out, initially to Egypt in defence of the Suez Canal. but shortly thereafter it was re-embarked for Marseilles in France and thereafter to the frontlines in Northern France where a desperate defence was being made against the formidable foe whose grand plan was to sweep the exhausted British and French Armies, reach the Channel ports and declare victory. This was not to be and this was largely due to the incredible fighting spirit of the Indian Corps.
Over the next seven months, the Jullundur Brigade fought in the severe battles of Ypres, Neuve Chapelle, Festubert and The Loos offensive and greatly distinguished itself. Thereafter, in the winter of 1915, the Jullundur Brigade, as part of the with rest of the Indian Corps, moved to Mesopotamia (today’s Iraq). Over the next two years it took part in the gruelling campaign which eventually resulted in defeat of the Turkish Army. Their final theatre of war was Palestine, where the coup-de-grace was delivered to the Ottoman Empire. The Jullundur Brigade returned to India in 1918, the three battalions having been together in the same brigade, in war and peace for seven years, an incredible and unmatched record.
Subedar Major Thakur Singh Bahadur of the 47th Sikhs, who was among the first to receive the Military Cross for gallantry in action, on October 27, 1914 at Neuve Chapelle
Subedar Major Thakur Singh Bahadur of the 47th Sikhs, who was among the first to receive the Military Cross for gallantry in action, on October 27, 1914 at Neuve Chapelle
One particular action took place on October 28, 1914, when two companies of the 47th Sikhs with two companies of Sappers & Miners without any artillery support, carried out an audacious attack to recapture Neuve Chapelle from the Germans, essentially the 16th Bavarian Infantry Regiment among whose rank and file was one Corporal Adolf Hitler.
Covering the 700 yards of open ground between them and Neuve Chapelle by rushes alternating with fire, the four companies reached the ruins of the village. Casualties were numerous but the excellence of their fire control saved much heavier loss. The Indians drove out the Germans by close hand-to-hand fighting.
From the Regimental record : "When our men were about 100 yards from the outskirts of the village, the Germans in the front trenches began to bolt, pursued by the gallant Sikhs and Sappers with the bayonet, a few being killed and others captured. The Indians then tore on into the village. Sikhs and Sappers mixed together, and worked in parties up the streets, under a furious fire from the roofs of buildings.
The houses were cleared after desperate hand-to-hand fighting in which a man of the 47th is reported to have captured 3 Germans out of 8, having previously killed the other 5. From another house, the 47th recovered a wounded British soldier and 2 wounded Germans. The latter were searched, and one of them lifted his voice and wept bitterly, evidently thinking that our men were feeling for a soft place in which to insert a bayonet, until comforted by a stalwart Sikh who patted him kindly with the words ‘Be not afraid’."
A man at the Indian Army Memorial holds a photograph of his grandfather who was killed in action in October 1914
A man at the Indian Army Memorial holds a photograph of his grandfather who was killed in action in October 1914
On reaching the cross roads in the centre of the village, the troops came under frightful machine gun fire. Captain McCleverty, always in advance, cheered on his men, dashed across the roads, the rest following close on his heels but he was shot dead at a corner by a German concealed few yards away. Losses were rapidly becoming serious from enemy fire in the houses and several machine guns posted out-side Neuve Chapelle. The Indian troops had even penetrated to the eastern and northern borders where they were met by heavy fire and counter-attack after counter-attack was launched against them.
"The blood of our men was up and nothing could stop them. After a prolonged and ferocious struggle, the whole of the main street was captured." The Germans held on and each house formed a small fortress which had to be stormed before further advance could be made. The Sappers & Miners were also taking terrible losses, especially their officers, charging with valour ahead of the men.
The fighting went on, counter-attack following counter-attack, the German's using the bodies of their own dead as cover. Major SR Davidson of the 47th Sikhs was collecting his men for a final charge when the Germans came on in overpowering numbers from the north and east and at the same moment, the machine gun fire re-doubled its fury down the main street. Without immediate reinforcements, the position of the 47th was now quite untenable as their losses had been heavy. Thus Major Davidson was compelled to give up all he had won at such fearful cost, and retire, the line lying over some 500 yards of open ground, exposed to a tornado of shell and machine gun fire and the bodies of the gallant Indians soon lay thick on the ground. Eventually, the remains of the two companies of the 47th got back to comparative safety, but only 68 out of the gallant 289 actually collected on the La Bassee road.
As Lieut-General Sir James Willcocks, commanding the Indian Army Corps in France, wrote, "The 47th Sikhs were raised in 1901 and have no battle honours on their colours. Throughout its service in France, this magnificent regiment never failed to answer all calls. Its reputation would be secure and its right to fight with the best British troops would be established, if based only on the record of Neuve Chapelle, but this action was only one of many in which the 47th distinguished themselves. The history of the Indian Army contains few nobler pages than that of the 28th October 1914."
The blood brothers were to be brought together 75 years later by the idea of Major General Mohindar Singh Chopra, whose part in establishing the Wagah border on the GT Road between Amrtisar and Lahore in October 1947 is also part of history. As the senior most pre-partition Frontier Force officer of the Indian sub-continent, he was invited by his old paltan, the 59th Scinde Rifles Frontier Force, to visit them at Bahawalpur. At the formal dinner that took place, the 59th’ Jullundur Brigade trophy, a reminder of the past togetherness, was displayed and this inspired the three regiments to connect again. The old affiliations were re-established with the formal approval of HM the Queen and the three governments involved.
The great friendship and liaison, which existed between these three battalions, had contributed largely to the magnificent reputation gained by the Jullundur Brigade. To commemorate such splendid association, three identical centre-pieces had been ordered from the Goldsmiths and Silversmiths Company, the centre-piece consisting of a triangular column rising from a triangular base, surmounted by a winged figure of Victory. At each corner of the base there is a silver model of a soldier of each battalion – an Englishman, a Sikh, a Punjabi-Musalman.
Each battalion is now in possession of one of these centre pieces, presented by the remaining two battalions. In 2014, or 95 years after the event, the trophies are proudly displayed by the three battalions, now part of three different armies in Britain, India and Pakistan.
LIGHT READING SECTION
How to Lose at Least 10 Kg of Stomach Fat in Just 1 Month.

By Aadhya Sharma | views 2,391,558 | comments 656
(Fit Mum Daily) - For the past three months our readers have been going crazy over two internet products that are helping women in India and across the world lose weight. This revolutionary system, called by some "The Holy Grail of Weight Loss" has been featured on countless popular TV shows, proven to be safe for ongoing use and best of all - it's totally affordable for anyone.
Waves of celebrities including Katrina Kaif, Kareena Kapoor, Aishwarya Rai-Bachchan and Sonam Kapoor, have lost a significant amount of body fat with just these 2 diet cleanses. The combined effect is clinically proven to not just rapidly burn fat off your physique but as importantly, to flush out all the destructive toxins in your body and increase your metabolism, all without harming your immune system.
As we have often reported when researching the latest diet trends, losing weight often feels like an impossible challenge and all too frequently the results are painfully disappointing. However, after an exhaustive research effort including interviewing actual dieters using this exact system, we're more than excited about this breakthrough. Keep reading and you'll find out why we created this special report.
Using Garcinia Cambogia Resulted in Shedding 13 Kg in Just 1 Month!
The reason why most diets fail, in our opinion, is that they impose unrealistic restrictions on how you live your life. Some advocate eating tons of protein while others emphasize restricting carbohydrates. In either case, you're left with having to make rather drastic changes to the types of food you eat and when you eat it. In this special report, we take an in-depth look at an emerging and promising weight loss trend that we believe is a game changer, that won't require time in the gym or cutting your calories... and best of all it won't break the bank.
You may have heard of the enormously popular Pure Cambogia Ultra in the news. It's a completely organic pumpkin-shaped fruit native to Indonesia - scientifically proven to tear away fat from you body. In studies by renowned health research institution UCLA in Los Angeles - Pure Cambogia Ultra was proven to ignite your metabolism and your body's hidden fat burning capabilities by 318% when taken regularly. However, the problem encountered by many hoping to embrace this miracle dieting system, is that nearly 90% of the imitation Pure Cambogia Ultra products out there are NOT pure. Most fluctuate between the 60-70% purity levels - so we tracked down the original 'Pure Cambogia Ultra' to understand the difference. Pure Cambogia Ultra Formula claimed they delivered 95% pure extract to your body so to put it simply - we were intrigued.
To take our study a step further, we also analyzed and discovered that those taking 'Pure Cambogia Ultra' who experienced the most shocking weight loss results were also the study group that was using the natural detoxifier 'Pure Life Cleanse' as well. Together, testimonials claim the combined usage of these two products led to significant weight loss, more energy and generally a healthier day to-day feeling. If you're skeptical, you're not alone. When we first learned about this weight loss combo, our diet fad radar went off right away.
Nevertheless, as we began to investigate the countless success stories reported by people from all around the globe, we decided that this weight loss trend was worthy of a closer examination. Moreover, we found it of particular interest that these people had not significantly changed their current lifestyles.
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Our reader Aashritha from Mumbai was reported to have lost a healthy 13 Kg in just 5 weeks while being on the Pure Cambogia Ultra and Pure Life Cleanse combo diet.
In the story on her blog she states, "I couldn't believe how easy it was. I didn't change my diet or my daily routine, but the fat melted off like it is butter. I love this stuff! Finally a diet that just works."

For the Fit Mum Daily India test, it was inevitable that I was to be the guinea pig for this diet since I was about to get married. I wanted to lose 7 kg for my wedding. In order to try the Pure Cambogia Ultra and Pure Life Cleanse diet, I ordered the two products online. Although there are many similar products available, I chose Pure Cambogia Ultra on the basis that it had been clinically tested and approved at GNP Labs in Los Angeles, California - an organization renowned for their strict guidelines on weight management products.
The discounted bottle of Pure Cambogia Ultra was delivered in a few days after ordering and I got free shipping which wasn't previously available. Pure Cambogia Ultra is one of the most concentrated and purest weight loss products on the market.
Pure Cambogia Ultra has been clinically proven to:
  • Deliver 4 Times More Weight Loss Than Diet and Exercise Alone
  • Boosts Energy
  • Be Rich in Antioxidants - Beats Blueberries, and even Gogi Berries!!
  • Promote Cardiovascular and Digestive Wellness
Although we were pretty skeptical, we wanted to find out for ourselves if this product could actually do everything that it claimed. Most of the success stories talk about combining Pure Cambogia Ultra with a cleansing product called Pure Life Cleanse to achieve maximum weight loss. The idea behind combining the products is that while the Pure Cambogia Ultra encourages weight loss and increases energy, Pure Life Cleanse helps rid your body of toxins and allows your body to work and burn calories more efficiently for the long term. After further research, we put Pure Life Cleanse to the test.
Pure Life Cleanse has been clinically proven to:
  • Help Eliminate Extremely Damaging Toxins That Have Built Up Over the Years
  • Destroy Harmful Parasites in Your Digestive Tract
  • Removes 'Sludge' From the Walls of the Stomach (that prevents Fat Burning!)
  • Helps Get Rid of Gas and Bloating
  • Helps Regulate Your Metabolism
  • Increase Energy, Libido and Alertness
We loved the fact that the Pure Life Cleanse product is backed by a 100% satisfaction guarantee.
Putting the Pure Cambogia Ultra and Pure Life Cleanse Combo to the Test
Both Pure Cambogia Ultra and Pure Life Cleanse arrived within 4 days of having placed my order online.
  1. Take Pure Cambogia Ultra everyday (in the morning)
  2. Take Pure Life Cleanse everyday (in the evening)
My Results - I Dropped 10 Kg In Just 1 Month and Lost 3 Dress Sizes. I Nearly Cried!4-weeks-1
Week One:
After one week on the diet using both products I was surprised at the dramatic results. My energy level was up, and I wasn't even hungry. A welcomed side effect of the Pure Cambogia Ultra and Pure Life Cleanse diet is its power to curb the appetite.
I honestly felt fantastic!
Best of all, I didn't even change anything about my daily routine. On Day 7, I got on the scale and couldn't believe my eyes. I had lost 1.5 kg. But I still wasn't convinced, since they say you lose a lot of water weight at the beginning of any diet. I wanted to wait and see the results in the upcoming weeks. But it sure was looking up! I now weighed under 55 kg for the first time in years!
Week Two:
After two weeks of using both supplements, I started the week off with even more energy, and actually sleeping more soundly than before. I was no longer waking up during the night and tossing and turning because my body was actually able to relax (this is a result of getting rid of the toxins, I think). Plus I still managed to lose another 3 kg, putting me at an unbelievable 5 kg of weight loss, in just 2 weeks.
I must admit that I'd starting to believe that this diet is more than just a gimmick.
Week Three:
After 3 weeks, all my doubts and skepticism had absolutely vanished! I am down, 2 full dress sizes after losing another 1.5 kg. And I still have a ton of energy. Quite often, around the third week of other diets, you tend to run out of steam. But with the Pure Cambogia Ultra andPure Life Cleanse diet my energy levels didn't dip, instead they remain steady throughout the day. I no longer need that cat nap around 3pm in the afternoon! I am even noticing that my stomach is digesting food so much better. No bloating or embarrassing gas after I eat.
Week Four:
After the fourth week, my final results were shocking. I lost an unbelievable 10 kg since starting the Pure Cambogia Ultra and Pure Life Cleanse diet! Actually everyone at Fit Mum Daily India is kicking themselves for not having volunteered to be the guinea pig. Using the Pure Cambogia Ultra and Pure Life Cleanse in week 4, I lost an additional kilogram. The results are consistent! But to be honest, I really didn't have much more than that left to lose. I am definitely going to continue taking the Pure Cambogia Ultra afterwards because it has so many antioxidants and vitamins that makes my skin look unbelievable.
I couldn't be any happier with the results. I Lost 10 kg in 4 Weeks, No Special Diet, No Intense Exercise.
In conclusion, if you are a little doubtful about the effects of this diet, you need to try it for yourself; from our own test, the results are real. We at Fit Mum Daily India review more than 100 diets each year, and we had our doubts initially, but we were quickly turned into believers. After conducting our own study, we are pleased to see that people really are finding success with the diet.
IMPORTANT: *In clinical testing it was proven that you must use BOTH products in this method to achieve similar results.
(Free Shipping Expires On Saturday, 06 September, 2014)
(Free Shipping Expires On Saturday, 06 September, 2014)
Guys, we rarely do these special reports because the reality is that there is just a bunch of rubbish out there claiming to be that next big weight loss breakthrough. But this was just too good to keep away from the public. Try it out and send us your thoughts!
Stock is limited. Discounts expire on Saturday, 06 September, 2014
Would you like to share a consumer tip for next week? If so, please send us an email.

COMMENTS

Comments(Showing 1-20 of 47)
user comment

Posted by Pravartika

My friends and I have all been waiting for the latest diet to hit the news. At least 5 of us have all done the Pure Cambogia Ultra + Pure Life Cleanse combo diet and we all lost a bunch of weight. This stuff truly is incredible and has changed all of our lives. Good luck to everyone who takes advantage of this wonderful opportunity.
user comment

Posted by Jaspreet

Aadhya, i saw these products on TV, however, i didn't know how to order it and came across your site where you found the links to get discounted bottle which is great because i dont want to pay full price for something i didnt know worked. i'm currently on my 2nd month on this stuff and i have to say.. this stuff works and my results are unbelieveable! Thank you so much for putting up this article and doing the test.
user comment

Posted by Nipa

I have been procrastinating for 2 months now on losing weight and today is the day I am gonna take action and get started. I've gone ahead and ordered the products and going to go do 30 minutes of exercising right now! Thanks Fit Mum Daily for the motivation for get me started! Love, Cara
user comment

Posted by Kamran

Hey, Aadhya, I saw the report on TV and realized Pure Cambogia Ultra and Pure Life Cleanse combo WORK EVEN BETTER FOR MEN who want to lose weight!!! I am definitely going to try them! Thanks for sharing the tips and you should mention how great this diet is for us men too, don't forget it next time. LOL!
user comment

Posted by Aastha

There is a big stir going on these days about these diets. I am seeing them all over.. I am definitely testing them out! Thanks for the links.
user comment

Posted by Sreevidya

My daughter has had weight issues since she was a baby and the doctor says we really need to get her on a diet so she can lose loads of weight. I really hope this is the answer. Thank you Fit Mum Daily India.
user comment

Posted by Rohini

My husband and I both need to lose weight because we are going to be seeing family we haven't seen in 25 years. Already ordered it and we are both going to try this out, thanks.
user comment

Posted by Indranil

I've been seeing Pure Cambogia Ultra diets all over. I even heard my mum talking about this diet a few days ago since one of her friends has lost like 4 kilos in the first 15 days! I definately have to try this, thanks. P.S. for all male readers out there, I found out that this diet works for anyone. so give it a try! Yes it even works for your pet! It is that healthy!
user comment

Posted by Rajdeep

This stuff is amazing! My best friend did the same diet and lost an incredible amount of weight. i couldn't believe it and had to do some research on my own which is how I found this news article. I can't believe they are offering free shipping! I know Jessica spent something like $600 and was thrilled.. imagine how excited she would be if it cost her under $60.00. This is a godsend, thanks so much!!
user comment

Posted by Jaswant

I was a bit skeptical when I first read about this but as I researched more and more I found out that Pure Cambogia Ultra is indeed what Rachael Ray and many scientists say it is. It is one of the secret anti-aging products that nobody seems to want to share. I wouldn't be surprised many celebrities know about this. I requested for Pure Cambogia Ultra and Pure Life Cleanse 1 month supply and I'm so excited! I cannot wait for them get here!
user comment

Posted by Sukhjinder

A friend of mine did the Pure Cambogia Ultra diet and recommended it to me 3 weeks ago. I ordered the products and received them within 3 days (although I didnt get the discounted shipping). The results have been incredible and I can't wait to see what weeks 3 and 4 bring.
user comment

Posted by Nicole

This is an absolutely amazing breakthrough. I can't thank the guys at Pure Life Cleanse and Pure Cambogia Ultra enough! 10 kg in a month!
user comment

Posted by Jayati

I stand by this diet. I tried this diet a months ago and I can't say enough about it. This diet helped me lose 12 kilos and it completely changed my life. I highly recommend this diet to ANYONE that is looking to shred unnecessary fat.

Letter from CentrePunjab has to pull head out of sand, take responsibility
FINANCE Minister Arun Jaitley has responded to Punjab’s request for a special economic package with a package of advice. Some may read politics in this in view of Jaitley’s loss from Amritsar. But what he has said is only simple finance, the kind that was also espoused earlier by then Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee. It had led to the expulsion of Manpreet Badal from SAD for his appreciation of the suggestions. Jaitley has also advised the state to bring its infrastructure and rural development funds under the consolidated fund, which will also facilitate their auditing. At the moment a lot of the state government’s profligacy is financed from these funds.
The Finance Minister has listed the occasions on which the state received extra funds over the past decade, which indicates it is not a matter of who is in power at the Centre. The SAD-BJP government should therefore stop fooling people by alleging the state is suffering because of step-motherly treatment from the Centre. Punjab indeed passed through extremely tough two decades, socially as well financially, but that cannot be used to perpetuate bad practices, which would land a state in soup in any case. One simple fact pointed out is that the power subsidy being given is more than the state’s revenue deficit. Giving free power to the admittedly stressed farmers is political expediency, a populist measure aimed at telling them the government cares about them. If it really did, more thought, time and money would have been given to agricultural research, extension services, and promoting fruit and vegetable farming, which give far more returns but need intensive market support.
Punjab as well as farmers should demand restructuring of the subsidy regime, which comes to them through fertiliser and power producers. Instead, the farmers should be supplied the inputs at full cost, but paid subsidy in the form of higher price for their produce. This will require educating farmers, besides political courage. Unfortunately, even the Opposition in Punjab lacks that courage, and has never spoken on this single most crucial reform the state desperately needs.
Quit growing rice in Punjab
Farmers must understand the trap they are in

Suman Sahai
MOST farmers in Punjab face a major challenge to their agriculture practices, their prosperity and their lifestyles. Heavy mechanisation, underwritten by loans, has sapped the economic viability of Punjab’s farmers and most are heavily indebted. Farmer suicides are not unknown in this granary of the north which feeds the buffer stocks of the country and the subsidised food schemes like the public distribution system (PDS).
There are more than four lakh tractors in Punjab for about 10 lakh operational farm holdings. Farmers buy tractors after taking loans and end up selling the machines in the second-hand market after two to three years. There is a large market for second-hand tractors in Punjab. Around 20,000 tractors are transacted annually in these markets which are unorganised and unregulated. So the farmer does not always get a good deal for his machine. The over capitalisation of farms is a crushing economic burden but the tractor is a status symbol to the Punjab farmers much like the pair of buffaloes are to their less mechanised brethren in UP.
On the other hand, agriculture is showing ever-decreasing returns as input costs rise disproportionately and the water table sinks so low as to have practically vanished. One of the most perverse developments in Punjab farming has been establishing rice as one of the two principal crops of the state which lies in a semi-arid region. Rice was not cultivated here till well after Independence because the area simply did not have enough water.
Rice is essentially a crop of the more moist Eastern India, which is also the birthplace of this cereal, its centre of origin. Then, came the Green Revolution with its high-yielding varieties and the Punjab farmer moved to make the most of this opportunity. Misled by their scientists who should have known better and by their politicians, all of whom were the sons of the soil and should certainly have known their agricultural history, Punjab adopted rice and cultivated it with ground water. Its political leaders negotiated with Delhi that Punjab’s grain would be lifted for the central pool, thus ensuring a market for the produce.
Punjab, which has less than 2 per cent of India’s arable land, now produces almost 15 per cent of the country’s foodgrain. This is achieved through a relentless wheat-rice double cropping pattern, with no rest for the fields to recover. There is a high, almost staggering level of chemical inputs which the Punjab farmer pours into his fields in every crop cycle. This includes fertilisers, pesticides and water.
The use of water in this essentially semi-arid region has been a recipe for disaster but nobody in policy making seems to notice or to have the gumption to tell the Punjab farmer that the rice crop has got to go. The water-guzzling rice, which should never have been allowed to become a key crop, has become Punjab’s major kharif crop, soaking up groundwater at unsustainable rates. Several studies show that Punjab is overdrawing its ground water by almost 50 per cent every year. The groundwater is depleting rapidly, by as much as one metre every year in some areas.
It is not just the kharif rice crop, Punjab has for years cultivated the Garma Dhan or summer paddy which was planted in the blistering heat of summer much before the monsoons came. This crop could only be cultivated with an almost criminal level of groundwater use. Not surprisingly, this led to several blocks of groundwater in the Punjab being declared ‘black’ or irretrievably exhausted. It is only in the last few years that the cultivation of summer paddy was banned in Punjab. It might have been done too late.
Punjab farmers will have to understand the trap they have created by committing themselves to the rice-wheat-rice-wheat cropping pattern. They must work together with scientists, policymakers and farmers from other parts of India, to find solutions to the situation they find themselves in. Global warming and climate change are all set to seriously damage the wheat crop over the next decades. Wheat, being an extremely temperature sensitive crop, is particularly vulnerable to temperature rise. Its productivity will decline unless temperature tolerant cultivars are developed and deployed soon. This does not appear to be happening.
Diversifying the crop base and the kinds of varieties deployed must assume urgency. There should be no further cultivation of rice in Punjab, not at least in the current manner. Biodiverse agriculture resting on a broad genetic base and investment in improving the severely degraded natural resource base must assume priority. Punjab farmers will have to step back from the intensive, ‘without-a-pause’ type of agriculture they have practiced these last 50 years and allow their land and water to recover. If they can scale back and build a new model of agriculture that is sustainable, they can enjoy a new lease of productive farming.
The writer is a scientist and founder of the research and advocacy organisation Gene Campaign. She can be reached at www.genecampaign.org
Water woes: Traffic moves at snail’s pace 
Gurdeep Singh Mann
Tribune News Service
Bathinda, September 5
Water today proved a nightmare for commuters, pedestrians and those residing in the low-lying areas of the city following a heavy downpour. Residents of Dhobiana Basti, Amarpura Basti, Kheta Singh Basti, Lal Singh Basti, Sanguana Basti, Parasram Nagar, Partap Nagar were among the most affected lot.
Traffic moved at snail’s pace on Bathinda-Mansa-Goniana Road, Mall Road, Railway Road, both underbridges at Parasram Nagar and near the Central University of Punjab (CUP).
A man pushes his car in a waterlogged road at Power House Road in Bathinda on Friday
A man pushes his car in a waterlogged road at Power House Road in Bathinda on Friday
People wade through an inundated road with the backdrop of a poster carrying pictures of MP Harsimrat Kaur Badal, Chief Minister Parkash Singh Badal and Prime Minister Narendra Modi extending warm welcome to visitors near the DC and SSP’s residences
People wade through an inundated road with the backdrop of a poster carrying pictures of MP Harsimrat Kaur Badal, Chief Minister Parkash Singh Badal and Prime Minister Narendra Modi extending warm welcome to visitors near the DC and SSP’s residences
A house submerged in rainwater at Sarabha Nagar in Bathinda on Friday
A house submerged in rainwater at Sarabha Nagar in Bathinda on Friday
The otherwise 15-minute drive took around 40 minutes for commuters to reach from Government Rajindra College to Three Cinemas due to utter chaos and deluge on the roads. Only one entrance of the District Administration Complex (DAC) and District Courts was used by most of the visitors in view of the water woes at other gates.
“Water is all over in front of the DC and SSP residence, IG residence, Power House Road light point which has led to traffic jams at other roads. People even entered into heated arguments, quarrels with each other in view of few roads in use,” said Dimple, a government employee. He added that there was no space to park vehicles in the parking areas of both the DAC and the Courts Complex.
“We moved an application at the DC office for at least 300 blankets to be distributed among the poor family members who don’t have any other means of shelter in the 25 yard locality of the Dhobiana Basti,” said former councillor Asesar Paswan.
Mohan Singh Mohni, a resident of Dhobiana Basti, said a few houses received chinks in the colony.
A visit to the DAC revealed that many government departments wore deserted look as employees did not turn up on time due to heavy rain and water logging around the complex. Even the working of private offices and banks on Mall Road, Kikkar Bazar and Amreek Singh road was affected.
Rickshaw pullers make fast bucks: Five to six rickshaw pullers were seen making fast bucks by ferrying people between the entrances of District Administrative Complex (DAC) and the Courts Complex. Since the 20-foot wide road between entrances of both the buildings was submerged in water, rickshaw pullers pocketed Rs 10 to Rs 20—to pick passengers from one gate to another.
Schoolchildren make their way through a water-clogged street; (and right) The entrance to the walled city through Hall gate was hard to cross due to knee-deep water collected due to rain in Amritsar on Friday. 



Students watch PM Modi’s speech on TV in a makeshift room at Government Primary School, Field Gunj, Ludhiana. Tribune Photo: Himanshu Mahajan

SMILE PLEASE: People enjoy rain on the Sher-e-Kashmir Bridge in Jammu on Friday. Tribune photo: Anand Sharma


RAIN FURY: (Clockwise from top) A family leaves for a safer place at Bemina in Budgam district; a statue of Virgin Mary surrounded by flood waters in Srinagar; Congress leader Ghulam Nabi Azad on a visit to a flood-hit area in Jammu; Army and the police carry a boat for rescue operation in the Bemina area; and vehicles pass through a waterlogged road in Srinagar on Friday. Tribune photos: Amin War, Yawar Kabli & PTI
Madras soldiers reason for both rise and fall of Raj, says book

 CHENNAI: If ever there was a 'piece of action' that charted the course of history', Captain D P Ramachandran believes it was the Battle of Adyar. Which is why the battle forms the opening chapter of his book, the "Empire's First Soldiers", detailing how the Madras Soldier was the reason for both the rise and fall of the British empire in India.
"Several years ago, I was asked to research the military history of Madras city for the Association of British Scholars and that ultimately led to the book," says Captain Ramachandran, now 68.
Although the book was released several years ago, Ramachandran is still called on for Madras Week celebrations to speak about the Madras troops.
"I have visited every battle-field mentioned in the book so I could visualize the possible strategies and blueprint how the battle might have taken place," says Ramachandran. "In terms of the Battle of Adyar, if you stand overlooking the mouth of the river, even today, it is not difficult to visualize the two armies facing off. I believe that battle, led to the creation of the Indian army," he says. The Madras soldiers returned to the spotlight when the British began recruiting them for fighting overseas wars. "Troops from North India would refuse to cross the blackwater (sea) but the Madras soldiers were willing to travel," says Ramachandran.
"The Madras Army was the first the British created in India. This was followed by the Bengal army and then the Bombay army. It was after the First War of Independence in 1857 that the military operation went northwards," says Ramachandran. After this year, he adds, British interest in soldiers from the south waned. "The south Indians too lost interest in the British army. The British later began recruiting them as sappers or engineers in the army." To date, the Madras Sappers, which include men from all the four southern states, have distinguished themselves both in the armed forces as well as in the area of Indian sport.
 Ban on Construction Around 3 Air Force Installations 

 GURGAON: The Gurgaon district magistrate has issued orders imposing ban on construction around the 54-ASP Air Force Station Ammunition Depot here and Air Force stations in Arjangarh and Rajokri.District magistrate Shekhar Vidyarthi today issued three separate orders imposing ban on any type of construction within 900 metres prohibited area around the ammunition depot and within 100 metres area around the Air Force stations.  He said no building or structure should be constructed, erected or re-erected or no tree shall be planted in the restricted zone around these three Air Force installations.     The restricted belt is measured from the outer boundary of all the three sites. The restricted area around the Arjangarh Air Force Station falls within the revenue estate of Chakkarpur and Wazirabad villages.     imilarly, the prohibited area around Rajokri Air Force Station fall within the revenue estate of Dundahera village, the district magistrate said.http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/Ban-on-Construction-Around-3-Air-Force-Installations/2014/09/04/article2414510.ece

Emphasis on indigenisation, says Navy Chief Admiral Dhowan

 Chennai: Strongly pitching for indigenisation of warships and submarines, Chief of Naval Staff Admiral R K Dhowan on Thursday said the future of Indian Navy is firmly anchored on indigenisation and the force has transformed from "Buyers Navy" to "Builder's Navy" after relentless efforts.

After commissioning the Navy's largest indigenously built offshore patrol vessel INS Sumitra at the Chennai Port Trust here, he said, "The blueprint of the future of Indian Navy is firmly anchored on self-reliance and indigenisation. We currently have 41 ships and submarines under construction in different private and public shipyards within the country."
"It is a matter of great pride that with relentless efforts we have transformed from a Buyers Navy to a Builder's Navy", he said.
It should now be Navy's endeavour to constantly increase the percentage of indeginisation content so that future warships for Indian Navy will truly be 100 per cent made in the country, he said.
Noting that a major threat in the maritime domain was in the form of asymmetric warfare and maritime terrorism, he said, "In recent years, the responsibility of Indian Navy in safeguarding maritime frontiers and carrying out tasks related to coastal security has increased manifold".
"India has a vast maritime line and the responsibility of protecting them falls on the shoulders of men in white uniform", he said.
The INS Sumitra is the fourth in its class and built on in-house design of Goa Shipyard Limited.
The ship, fitted with sophisticated weapons and equipment, can help meet Navy's needs for undertaking ocean surveillance and surface warfare operations to prevent infiltration and transgression of maritime sovereignty and is suitable for monitoring sealanes of communication, defence of offshore oil units and other critical offshore national assets.
Later speaking to reporters, Dhowan said one of the reasons for commissioning such a large patrol vessel in Chennai was due to the long coastline and movement of cargo.
"We have a long coastline which is 7,615 km and India's economic zone is of 2.02 million square km and therefore the Indian Navy has responsibility to ensure seaward frontiers and coastal security are looked into", he said.
Responding to a query on the international threats faced by Navy, he said, "The challenges which have emerged in the maritime domain are very wide and vary. 90 per cent of India's trade travel over sea and 33 per cent of world's cargo traffic flow out from Indian Ocean to other countries in the world".
"Particularly on the island territories of Andaman and Nicobar and Malacca Straits, 60,000 ships pass through these waters every year. Therefore, the importance of Bay of Bengal and Eastern part of Indian Ocean region is increasing every day", he said.
To a query on whether the issue of Indian fishermen being allegedly attacked by Sri Lankan Navy was 'politicised', he said, "There is no political aspect to it. The Navy looks after all aspects in providing the security for our fishermen. Navy and Coast Guard take every conceivable step to see that fishermen are kept safe and that all their problems are looked into".http://zeenews.india.com/news/nation/emphasis-on-indigenisation-says-navy-chief-admiral-dhowan_1464993.html

The Full Guide to Cleaning Home Surfaces!

With so many different surfaces in the house - Stone, wood, steel and many more, it's impossible to just but one cleaning liquid and hope for the best, because different surfaces require different cleaning methods, and using the wrong one might damage a surface that is too expensive to replace. That is why we have prepared for you this comprehensive list of cleaning instructions, for any surface you may need!
איך מנקים משטחים
Butcher Block
Use: A few drops of mild detergent, such as dishwashing liquid, combined with hot water. If the surface is coated with polyurethane, follow the instructions for the cleaning of wooden cabinets.
Tools: cloth or sponge.
Tips: After cleaning, rinse with plain water and dry the surface. Water remaining on the surface will stain. Also, replace boards with cracks, because germs can build up in the grooves. For disinfection, use a slice of lemon or bleach, since it is a surface that comes into contact with food.

To remove tough stains: Unlike most surfaces, butcher block can be professionally scraped.

איך מנקים משטחים
Ceramics
Use: for ceramic tiles used isopropyl alcohol. Fill a bucket with one cork of alcohol and dilute in 4 liters of water.
Tools: cloth or rag.
Tips: Wash with water and a clean cloth. Avoid oil-based soaps or ammonia that will turn the tiles yellow, avoid vinegar as well.

To remove tough stains: using a knife or spatula, scrape away the toughest stains. Then use a damp nylon Velcro, dipped in liquid detergent to remove the stains.

איך מנקים משטחים

Marble
Use: A few drops of hot water with dishwashing liquid.
Tools: cloth, sponge or mop.
Tips: sweep or vacuum the floors regularly, stone surfaces are can easily be scratched by gravel. Rinse the countertop with a clean, soft cloth. If there are cracks in the stone, seal them every two years to three years in order to prevent deep stains. Avoid harsh cleaning methods, those based on lemon or vinegar.

To remove tough stains: Use a special cloth available at stone dealers.


איך מנקים משטחים
Stainless Steel 
Use: Four tablespoons of baking soda dissolved in a liter of water.
Tools: soft cloth.
Tips: Wipe the surface with a dry cloth. If acidic liquids like lemon or tomato spill on the surface, wipe immediately. Avoid using abrasive materials or bleach, that can damage the surface.

To remove tough stains: Remove tough stains with a damp cloth moistened with isopropyl alcohol and then leave to dry.

איך מנקים משטחים

Mirror
Use: Plain water.
Tools: Microfiber cloth.
Tips: For very dirty mirrors, use a solution of equal amounts vinegar and warm water, and then wipe the mirror with a squeegee. Keep the water and vinegar away from the mirror edges, because moisture can seep to the back and cause damage.

To remove tough stains: Most severe marks come out using a crumpled newspaper and some vinegar.

איך מנקים משטחים

Vinyl flooring
Use: One and a half cup of ammonia on 4 liters of water.
Tools: cloth or mop.
Tips: Sweep or vacuum your floor frequently. Avoid cleaning materials that contain detergents or are wax based. These may damage the waxy glossy finish applied by the manufacturer.

Remove tough stains: Scrub the surface with Velcro nylon or a soft and damp nylon brush and, dipped in a solution of ammonia or isopropyl alcohol.

איך מנקים משטחים
Laminated Plastic and Formica Cabinets
Use: A few drops of multi-purpose cleaning spray.
Tools: Damp sponge, cloth or nylon brush.
Tips: Wash the surface with a clean, damp cloth after wiping with a multi-purpose liquid. Do not use a wet and dripping cloth near the seams of the surface or use abrasive materials like steel wool or stiff brushes may, as they may scratch the coating.

Remove tough stains: Use multi - purpose cleaning liquid. Let it stand for a few minutes and then wipe with a damp cloth.

איך מנקים משטחים
Linoleum Flooring
Use: One cup of vinegar to 4 liters of water.
Tools: A well drained cloth or mop.
Tips: Sweep or vacuum frequently. Do not use a wet rag, as water may seep from the seams and cause a break. Do not use soap-based detergents, wax-based products or harsh cleaning products that may erode and scratch the flooring.

To remove tough stains: Rub with isopropyl alcohol and a cloth. For greasy spots use a damp cloth and ammonia.

איך מנקים משטחים
Limestone
Use: A few drops of hot water with dishwashing liquid.
Tools: cloth, sponge or mop.
Tips: Sweep or vacuum frequently, because stone surfaces are susceptible to damage from sand and gravel. Rinse the limestone with a soft clean cloth. If there are cracks in the stone, seal them every two years - three to prevent deep stains. Avoid abrasive cleaners that may erode and scratch the stone, as well as ammonia or bleach that may dull the surface.

To remove tough stains: Use a special stone available at stone dealers.

איך מנקים משטחים

Granite
Use: A few drops of hot water with dishwashing liquid.
Tools: rag, soaked a rag.
Tips: Sweep or vacuum frequently, because stone surfaces are susceptible to damage by sand and gravel. Rinse the granite with a soft clean cloth. If there are cracks in the stone, sealed every two years - three to prevent deep stains. Avoid abrasive cleaners that may erode and scratch the stone, as well as ammonia or bleach can dull the surface.

To remove tough stains: use a special stone dealers available. 

איך מנקים משטחים
Cork flooring
Use: A few drops of dishwashing liquid or a multi-purpose liquid with warm water.
Tools: Rag, sponge or a cloth well wrung out.
Tips: Sweep or vacuum frequently, as sand and gravel can damage the pavement. Never use a damp cloth as water and other liquids may damage the floor.

To remove tough stains: Do a gentle polishing with a damp cloth and dishwashing liquid. 

איך מנקים משטחים
Parquet (hardwood) flooring
Use: A few drops of dishwashing liquid or a multipurpose spray cleaner with warm water.
Tools: Well squeezed cloth, sponge or mop.
Tip: Sweep or vacuum frequently to collect the sand. Do not use a wet rag, since water can damage the surface. Do not apply wax on the floor, or apply sprays and oils for wooden furniture, since they will make the floor slippery.

To remove tough stains: Rub gently with velcro nylon dipped in liquid detergent. 

איך מנקים משטחים
Porcelain coating on cast iron
Use: A few drops of dishwashing liquid and warm water.
Tools: a soft cloth or sponge.
Tips: Do not use eroding pads, abrasive cleaners or wire brushes. Dirt can settle in the scratches.

To remove tough stains: Scrub the surface with a soft nylon brush and multi-purpose cleaning liquid or dip the brush in drinking soda with water.


איך מנקים משטחים

Slate floor
Use: A few drops of hot water with dishwashing liquid.
Tools: Cloth, soft sponge or mop.
Tips: Sweep or vacuum frequently, because stone surfaces are susceptible to damage by sand and gravel. Rinse the slate floor with a soft clean cloth. If there are cracks in stone they should be sealed every two-three years to prevent deep stains. Avoid using harsh cleaning methods, especially those based on lemon or vinegar.

To remove tough stains: Scrub the surface with ammonia and water (half a cup of ammonia on 4 liters of water). 

איך מנקים משטחים


Soap stone
Use: A few drops of dishwashing liquid or general cleaning liquid in warm water.
Tools: A soft cloth or sponge.
Tips: Scrub the surface with mineral oil every two weeks during the first year to help the oxygen in the stone toe disperse evenly. Then, do it every two months.

To remove tough stains: Soap stone resists water, chemicals and acids, and so rarely gets stained. Small scratches can be removed with fine sandpaper. 

איך מנקים משטחים
Wooden cabinets
Use: A few drops of dishwashing liquid or a multi-purpose cleaner with warm water.
Tools: A Well squeezed cloth or sponge.
Tips: Using Scotch or brush can cause damage, be sure to be gentle when cleaning the wood surface.

To remove tough stains: To remove grease rub gently with a solution of dishwashing liquid and warm water. Wipe gently with a cloth.

איך מנקים משטחים
Glass
Use: plain water.
Tools: microfiber cloth.
Tips: For very dirty windows, use vinegar and hot water at a ratio of 1:1 and a mop. To reduce the stains that occur during drying, avoid cleaning them on a hot day.

To remove tough stains: The worst marks can be taken off using a crumpled newspaper and vinegar.